Project Readiness Package
- Project Name
- EPA Water Disinfection Project
- Project Number
- Project Family
- P07400 Sustainable Technologies for the Third World
- Project Track
- Sustainable Products, Systems, and Technologies
- Start Term
- End Term
- Faculty Guide
- Dr. Rob Stevens (Mechanical Engineering)
- Faculty Consultant
- Dr. Margaret Bailey (Mechanical Engineering);
- Dr. Andres Carrano (Industrial and Systems Engineering);
- Dr. Brian Thorn (Industrial and Systems Engineering)
- Primary Customer
- Dr. Rob Stevens (ME) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
- Secondary Customers
- End User - People residing in rural areas of third-world countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.
- Customer contact information
- Dr. Rob Stevens
- Mechanical Engineering
The mission of this student team is to design, build and test a novel solar pasteurizer. Solar pasteurization is based on the principle of using solar energy to thermally kill pathogenic protozoan, bacteria and viruses at temperatures below the boiling point. This project will use solar pasteurization as a means of treating water in remote rural areas without electrical power.
|Team Member||Discipline||Role / Skills||email address|
|TBD||ME||Faculty Guide, Will work closely with the team on an on-going basis to facilitate firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Dr. Rob Stevens||ME||Faculty Consultant, Will provide overall technical guidance on the email@example.com|
|Dr. Maragret Bailey||ME||Faculty Consultant, Will provide ME discipline and Sustainable Systems technical support on an intermittant firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Dr. Andres Carrano||ISE||Faculty Consultant, Will provide overall technical support since he is interested in a alternate solution to the same email@example.com|
|Dr. Brian Thorn||ISE||Faculty Consultant, Will provide overall technical support since he is interested in a alternate solution to the same firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Sang Lee||ME||Team Leaderemail@example.com|
|TBD Student (Elaine)||ME||Thermal/Heat Transfer Analysis|
|TBD Student (Kellen)||ME||Thermal/Heat Transfer Analysis|
|TBD Student (Drazen)||ME||Material Analysis, Procurement, Fabrication|
|TBD Student||ME||Data Acquisition & Thermal Performance Testing|
|TBD Student||ISE||Process Flow|
|TBD Student||ISE||Product Design|
Some additional roles of the people involved in the project (according to Dr. Stevens) might be:
- Thermal analysis and modeling
- Material selection (corrosion, scaling, solar, insulation, etc.)
- Fluid modeling
- Material processing (potentially metal forming, cutting, shaping, soldering/brazing, etc.)
- Fabrication and Manufacturing
- Data acquisition and testing
- Cost and life-cycle analysis
- Durability testing
- CAD or some other design software
Continuation, Platform, or Building Block Project Information
This project is listed in the Sustainable Products, Systems and Technologies Track of Projects. This track of projects embodies sustainable principles; that is, they accomplish their goals without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The EPA Water Disinfection Project is part of the Third-World Family of Projects. This is due to the fact that its main goals pertain to helping the people of the developing world.
Some background information for the reasoning behind this project is as follows:
According to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and the WHO/UNICEF, some 1.1 billion people are without access to safe drinking water. More than 5 million people die from the lack of safe water and improper sanitation every year. Children are the primary victims. This cuts short their opportunity to grow-up and be productive and contributing citizens in their communities.
Although there has been significant progress over the past decades to improve access to safe water in urban areas, most of the existing systems are not suitable for rural applications where populations are more dispersed and electrical power is unpredictable or nonexistant. A range of alternative water technologies are required to fully address the needs of rural areas.
This project is designed to further develop a solar pasteurizer as a means of treating water to be used in developing countries, specifically in South America, where on average 45% of population is below the poverty line and 36% live in rural settings where safe water/power may not be available.
This roadmap will be initiated during the Fall Quarter, 2006-1, with other closely related projects, as listed below.
|Related Project||Title||Start Term||End Term|
|P07400||Sustainable Products, Systems, and Technologies Track||2006-1||On-going|
|P07402||ISE Water Disinfection Project||2006-2||2006-3|
|P07403||Eze Kamanu's Garri Processing Project||2006-2||2006-3|
!!!!!!Need to make links work above !!!!!
Principle Sponsor or Sponsoring Organization
!!!!!Have picutre saved in my directory, need to learn how to post it !!!!!!
Detailed Project Description
- The solar pasteurizer will be used as a means of treating water in remote rural areas without electrical power.
- The pasteurizer will be functional without the use of scarce fuel wood or a source of cholorine.
- The pasteurizer will be low maintenance and not require the use of specialized imported system components.
- The pasteurizer will use resources that are available in developing countries. This includes using materials and fabrication techniques readily available in the developing world.
- The pasteurizer will allow for continual flow through the system using simple flow control devices that will help to recover heat from treated water.
- The product will be easy to use and require little maintenance.
- The unit should be safe and effective on different sources of water.
- The pasteurizer should be well suited for home, school, or small clinic applications.
Interactions with CustomersInterview with Dr. Stevens
Friday September 22, 2006
The following interview is a paraphrased version of the interview that was conducted. It serves the purpose of allowing students who are interested in the project to understand the types of questions that were asked and the type of responses that were given.
Question: Could you share with me your overall vision of what exactly the Dr. Rob Stevens' Water Disinfection Project is all about? What are some of the target objectives?
Answer: Well, basically it is about developing a solar pasteurizer to disinfect water in rural areas or where people do not have access to safe drinking water. Solar pasteurization treats the water by using solar energy to thermally kill bacteria and viruses below the boiling point. We actually have an EPA grant for this project, so I can show you the proposal for some more background information.
Question: Could you comment on the "customers" that we are targeting for this project? What type of people are we producing this product for? For example, from what type of economic and educational background are our "customers"? Also, where are these people from and where will this product be put to use?
Answer: Yes, the end user for this project will generally be people living in third world countries. Most likely these people will be living in rural areas and possibly without electricity as a power supply. As far as educational background, that is important because we want our end product to be rather low maintenance. We have to make it easy to use, so that the end user does not need to be educated on how to work the product. We want to be able to regulate flow, possibly with some type of auto thermostate valves
Question: What types of resources do we have to work with? How many people might be involved in this project? What kind of equipment do we have readily available to us for use? Are there any types of time constraints?
Answer: Well, we have a $10,000 grant from the EPA for the project; however, about half of that money will be needed for a trip to Washington, D.C. to present the project at the end of the year. So we should plan on working with about $4,500 for materials and data acquisition equipment and supplies. I actually have a computer that I am willing to dedicate to the project for data acquisition purposes. As far as physical space, I have not set anything up yet, we will have to work on that. But, we will need some outdoor space as well for testing purposes in addition to whatever indoor space we will need.
Question: Now from an engineering standpoint, what are the fundamental functions or core purposes of the product? What methods of disinfections are going to be used?
Answer: Like I said before, solar pasteurization will be used as the means of disinfecting water. We will assume that there is no electrical power available. There have been other attemps at using solar pasteurization technologies for water disinfection, however, they were based on batch systems and showed marginal throughput. We want to get higher production rates by allowing continual flow through the system. We can do this by using simple flow control devices and recover the heat from the treated water.
Question: What is the water source that we are disinfecting? Where does this water come from? What is wrong with it? Who is drinking from this water?
Answer: Well, it is just unsafe water. I could not really tell you what exactly is wrong with it. We have partners in Venezuela that are interested in the project as well. They can give you more information on the water sources and what exactly is wrong with it.
Question: Are there any auxiliary functions that you are wishing that this product will have?
Answer: Well, like I said before, we want it to be easy to operate. We also want continual flow to produce more throughput.
Question: What type of user functions will be involved? Is this going to be a househeld product? Who is going to run this water disinfection system?
Answer: Solar pasteurization is potentially well suited for home, school, and small health clinic applications. The students will have to decide on exactly what type of product it will be, as far as how large and stuff like that. The end user will essentially be the one running the product and it will have to be developed with whatever resources are available to these people in under-developed rural areas.
Question: I was also interested in the ISE Water Disinfection Project, which I believe is being run by Dr. Carrano. However, Anna Murray asked for that project before I was able to do so. Are there any similarities between these two projects? Are they serving the same purpose? Can there be any colloboration between these two projects?
Answer: Yes, these two projects are essentially serving the same purpose - to disinfect water in third world countries. I actually met with Anna and Andres yesterday to discuss their project. I was thinking that the two projects could work together on the post-treatment testing procedures. This would be a good area for the two groups to work together, because there is really no point in them doing two different quality testing procedures.
Interpretation of Raw Data in Terms of Customer Needs
Hierarchical Customer Needs
Need 1 - Solar Pasteurizer should be
- Need 1.1 - Use resources readily available in the
- Need 1.1a - Will not use specialized imported system components.
- Need 1.2 - Use fabrication techniques readily available in the developing world.
- Need 1.3 - Should be functional without electrical power.
- Need 1.4 - Should not require scarce fuel wood.
- Need 1.5 - Should not require a source of cholorine.
- Need 1.1 - Use resources readily available in the developing world.
Need 2 - Solar Pasteurizer should be
- Need 2.1 - Will disinfect the water source available to that area.
- Need 2.2 - Will thermally kill pathogenic protozoan, bacteria and viruses below the boiling point.
- Need 2.3 - Will be able to handle sediment in the water.
- Need 2.4 - Will regulate water flow.
- Need 2.5 - Will be failsafe.
- Need 2.6 - Will entail a treated water testing system to ensure a quality end product.
Need 3 - Solar Pasteurizer should be
- Need 3.1 - Will be effective on different sources of water.
- Need 3.2 - Will work for either home, school, or small clinic applications.
- Need 3.3 - Can be used in different countries (language, climate, etc.)
Need 4 - Solar Pasteurizer should be Easy to
- Need 4.1 - Will use auto-thermostate valves to regulate flow.
- Need 4.2 - Will be low maintenance.
- Need 4.3 - Will be operable by a person with little education.
After listing the needs in list order here, this is a great place to include an objective tree as a graphical representation of your interpretation of the customer needs.
Relative Importance of the Customer Needs
|Need||The Product||Needs to||Importance|
|Need 1.1||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Must use resources that are readily available in the developing world.||9|
|Need 1.1a||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Must not require specialized system components to be imported.||9|
|Need 1.2||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Use fabrication techniques readily available in the developing world.||9|
|Need 1.3||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Must function without electrical power.||9|
|Need 1.4||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Must not require scarce fuel wood.||3|
|Need 1.5||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will not use chlorine.||3|
|Need 2.1||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will disinfect the water source available to that area.||9|
|Need 2.2||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will thermally kill pathogenic protozoan, bacteria, and viruses in the water below the boiling point.||9|
|Need 2.3||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will be able to handle sediment in the water.||3|
|Need 2.4||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will regulate water flow.||9|
|Need 2.5||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will be failsafe.||9|
|Need 2.6||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will entail a treated water testing system to ensure a quality end product.||9|
|Need 3.1||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will be effective on differnet sources of water.||9|
|Need 3.2||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will work for either home, school, or small clinic application.||9|
|Need 3.3||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Can be used in different countries.||1|
|Need 4.1||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will use autothermostate valves to regulate flow.||3|
|Need 4.2||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will be low maintenance.||3|
|Need 4.3||Solar Pasteurizer - Water Disinfection System||Will be oberable by a person with little education.||9|
Background Information Provided by the Customer
Useful Web Resources
- U.S. EPA Proposal Abstract
- An Investigation of a Solar Pasteurizer with an Integral Heat Exchanger (SPIHX)
- Design and Testing of Two Low-Cost Solar Pasteurizers
- Answers to Reviewer's Concerns (P3 Award)
- Responsibilities and Deadlines for EPA Project (http://es.epa.gov/ncer/p3/teams/index.html)
- EPA Report Instructions (http://es.epa.gov/ncer/p3/current/instructions.pdf)
Initial Concepts to Consider
This project is a part of the EPA's P3 competition (See website above). Therefore, the customer has specific deliverables that must be met to fulfill the contract for the grant awarded to this project. A final report is due to the EPA by April 11th, 2007. (Suggested to have final report prepared a week in advance so that Dr. Stevens may revise.) The final report has specific guidelines that it must follow. These guidlines are listed on the website link provided above. Also, the team is expected to participate in the exhibition in Washington, DC in May 2007. Expectations for this expo can be viewed on the EPA website above.
Customer and Sponsor Involvement
The team will be expected to carry out the vast majority of their interactions with the Team Guide (Dr. Walter), and the teaching assistant (Jeff Webb). Dr. Hensel (The sponsor and customer) will be available for a series of meetings during the course of the project. Dr. Hensel will meet with a group of teams during the beginning of SD1 to lay out common goals, objectives, and philosophies for the sequence of projects being sponsored by the Gleason Foundation gift to the ME Department. It is anticipated that Dr. Hensel will meet with the team (or multiple related teams) for 2 hour meetings approximately 4 times during senior design 1, and twice during senior design 2. Dr. Hensel will participate with team communications electronically, through the web site as well.
- The design shall comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The team's design project report should include references to, and compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations.
- The design shall comply with all applicable RIT Policies and Procedures. The team's design project report should include references to, and compliance with all applicable RIT Policies and Procedures.
- Wherever practical, the design should follow industry standard codes and standards (e.g. Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS), FCC regulations, IEEE standards, and relevant safety standards as prescribed by IEC, including IEC60601). The team's design project report should include references to, and compliance with industry codes or standards.
Project Budget and Special Procurement Processes
This project has recieved the EPA P3 Award Grant which provides the team with a $10,000 budget. Unfortunately about half of that money is devoted to funding the travel Washington, DC in spring 2007 for a required conference as a deliverable of the EPA contract/grant.This leaves the student team with about $4,500 left for materials and data acquistion supplies and equipment. The consumables to be purchased will be decided by the team after interactions with contacts from Venezuela to determine the available materials and manufacturing processes to be used for the development of the solar pastuerizer.
An itemized budget for EPA Water Disinfection Project is provided by Dr. Stevens in his EPA STAR Grant Application Proposal which is available in the "Background Information Provided by the Customer" above.
Intellectual Property Considerations
All work to be completed by students in this track is expected to be released to the public domain. Students, Faculty, Staff, and other participants in the project will be expected to release rights to their designs, documents, drawings, etc., to the public domain, so that others may freely build upon the results and findings without constraint.
Students, Faculty, and Staff associated with the project are encouraged to publish findings, data, and results openly.
List of Metrics
The table below presents the metrics that will be used by the team to design against.
|Metric No.||Need Nos.||Metric||Importance||Units|
Needs Related to the Metrics Using a Matrix
The engineering specifications that you created in the preceding list should be directly related to the customer needs as outlined in the previous homework.
|Needs and Metrics||Metric 1||Metric 2||Metric 3||Metric 4||Metric 5, etc.|
|Need 4, etc.||x||x||x|
Competitive Benchmarking Information
Relatively few Sr. design projects start from a clean sheet of paper. In most cases, there are some baseline solutions or products that could meet the vast majority of the customer's needs.
Write one or two paragraphs about each benchmark solution from the market place. Include a picture of the product, preferably illustrating the product in use or operation.
- Benchmark 1
- Describe the first benchmark solution here.
- Benchmark 2
- Describe the second benchmark solution here.
- Benchmark 3
- Describe the third benchmark solution here.
Use this table below to compare how pre-existing solutions should compare against the design team's efforts. See the example Table 5-6 on Page 80 of the text by Ulrich and Eppinger.
|Metric No.||Need Nos.||Metric||Importance||Units||Benchmark 1 Value||Benchmark 2 Value||Benchmark 3 Value|
Ideal and Marginally Acceptable Target Values
Given the customer needs, awareness of the marketplace, and resource limitations of the current project, assign preliminary engineering specifications on each of the metrics. In addition to setting the nominal or target value or each specification, provide guidance to the team on the ideal value or direction that the team should strive for, once the nominal target values have been realized.
|Metric No.||Need Nos.||Metric||Importance||Units||Marginal value||Ideal Value|
- The top speed of the vehicular platform should be scaled with its size, and should be safe for its operating range and environment.
- The vehicular platform shall have on-board and remote "kill switches".
- Human safety takes precedence over all other design objectives.
- Building and facilities safety takes precedence over robotic vehicle platform damage.
- The vehicle should be robust to damage by inexperienced operators.
Detailed Course Deliverables
Note that this level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.
See Senior Design I Course Deliverables for detail.
- The following tasks should be completed by the end of SD1:
- Team Start-Up
- Literature Research
- Capture of Regional Constraints
- Concept Development
- Preliminary Designs
- Post-Treatment Water Testing Procedures (working with Anna Murray and her team)
- Preliminary Testing (in particular, testing of preliminary subsystems/components. Although the design should be relatively simple, there are many things that could go wrong that might require some preliminary testing before a final design is decided upon. In particular the temperature valve regulating flow system purging issues, etc.)
- The following tasks should be completed by the end of SD2:
- Prototype Manufacturing
- Testing and Modifications
- Detailed Design and Reporting
- Final Report and Expo in Washington, DC
Preliminary Work Breakdown
Week 0->1 Tasks
(8 Dec 06)
Week 1->2 Tasks
(15 Dec 06)
Week 2->3 Tasks
(22 Dec 06)
|ME Student 1|
|ME Student 2|
|ME Student 3|
|ME Student 4|
|ISE Student 1|
|ISE Student 2|
Grading and Assessment Scheme
Grading of students in this project will be fully consistent with grading policies established for the SD1 and SD2 courses. The following level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.
- Level D:
- The student team will design and build a prototype pasteurizer and do preliminary testing on performance. The team shall also complete a final report to be submitted to to the EPA by April 11th, 2007 as described at (http://es.epa.gov/ncer/p3/teams/index.html). The team will also participate in the EPA P3 Expo in May 2007.
- Level C:
- The student team will deliver all elements of Level D PLUS: The student team will do extensive testing of the prototype and verify pasteurization is accomplished either through thermal testing or biological testing or both.
- Level B:
- The student team will deliver all elements of Level D and C PLUS: The prototype will satisfy the customer needs greater than 5 listed above and some if not all low level needs.
- Level A:
- The student team will deliver all elements of Level D, C, and B PLUS: The prototype shall be a substantial improvement over existing solar pastuerizers. The prototype's durability and eas of operation should be demonstrated. Full testing under a range of environmental conditions should be done and manufacturing plans should be drafted.
|Dr. Rob Stevens||ME||Faculty Guide/Coordinator/Mentor||Yes|
|Dr. Margaret Bailey||ME||Co-Advisor||Yes|
|Dr. Andres Carrano||ISE||Co-Advisor (Also the lead advisor of U.V. Water Disinfection Project)||Yes|
|Dr. Brian Thorn||ISE||Co-Advisor||Yes|
|Partners in Venezuela||See Proposal Abstract||Regional Information on Manufacturing and Materials Constraints||Yes|
|IE Lab||IE 09-1150||Work Space/Storage (Although would have to clean up after every use; therefore, not ideal)||Yes, is needed|
|Thermofluids Lab||Room Number??||Work Space||Dr. Stevens is working on it|
|Outdoor Space||Porch on southside of Microelectronics building||Testing Purposes||Dr. Stevens and Dr. Hensel are working on it|
|ME Shop||ME 09-2360||Parts Fabrication||Yes|
|Dr. Stevens has a computer||See Dr. Stevens||Use for Data Acquisition||Yes|
-The team must complete some material analysis to become familiar with the types of materials that will be readily available for use in the developing world, where their end product will be built and put to use.