Our budget in the original design process was anticipated to be much larger than what was actually delivered. This put several constraints on our design, and a few items that we had hoped to deliver will not be purchased due to lack of funding. Our customer, however, told us to design the items outside of our budget anyway. Then as more funding occurs in the future they will be able to implement these designs.

Health, Safety, and Environmental

A health, safety, and environmental (HSE) evaluation was conducted throughout the various phases of design. The evaluation included engineering calculations where necessary to determine the presence and extent of certain hazards. The initial HSE assessment included strategic assessment, which covered the wide range of potential HSE issues. The intent of the strategic assessment was to identify any key HSE issues, which would impact the development and detailed design of any of the engine’s subsystems. These strategic issues included such issues as air emissions, hazardous materials storage, fire safety, machine safeguarding, and walking-working surfaces.

In addition to the strategic assessment, a standards and codes review was conducted to identify applicable New York State building and fire code requirements, as well as industry standards such as those available from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). OSHA requirements were also evaluated for applicability to the project. There was also the necessity to perform engineering calculations to determine the presence and extent of certain hazardous conditions. The key hazard that was further evaluated using this approach was with regard to the hazard associated with an upset condition, which could result in a propane-air deflagration within the combustion chamber. Using a number of conservative assumptions including a perfectly mixed, stoichiometric propane-air mixture, as well as constant volume conditions (assumed no venting through the combustion chamber inlet or outlet), it was determine that the over-pressure produced by a constant volume propane-air deflagration would be contained by the combustion chamber and would not result in catastrophic failure of the combustion chamber. As an additional safeguard, combustion chamber purge air would be available through the compressed air start system to minimize the development of a full combustion chamber volume propane-air deflagration.

A key safeguard that was built into the engine design was to use a hazardous area electrical classification where propane-air vapors could be present and to eliminate electrical sources of ignition. This was accomplished by a combination of the use of intrinsically safe components, as well as purged/pressurized enclosures.

Finally, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was performed on the final design. This process identified key failure modes and causes, as well as the risk characterization of the failure, the existing safeguards, and residual risk.

It must be stated and users should be cautioned that this engine utilizes propane as a fuel source. Propane is a flammable gas and can present a significant fire and explosion hazard. Additional safeguards have been incorporated into this version of the jet engine. However, this engine should still be considered a prototype and operated only by individuals who are highly trained in its operation and the hazards associated with propane and the engine operation. The engine does not have what would be considered standard commercial/industrial safeguards for the hazards present

Engineering Standards






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