P07006: Upper extremity exerciser w Nazareth College's physical therapy department
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P07006 PRP

Table of Contents

Administrative Information

Project Name
Upper Extremity Exerciser
Project Number
P07006
Project Family
P07000 Assitive Device Technology Family of Projects
Track
Bioengineering and Assistive Device Technology
Start Term
2006-2
End Term
2006-3
Faculty Guide
Dr. Matt Marshall (ISE)
Faculty Consultant
Dr. Elizabeth Debartolo (ISE)
Primary Customer
Nazareth College Physical Therapy Department
Secondary Customers
Other Physical Therapy service providers and stroke patients consuming physical therapy services.
Customer contact information
J.J. Mowder - Tinney PT, MS, NCS, CWS,
Director of Physical Therapy, Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy
Phone: 585-389-2901
Email: jmowder3@naz.edu

Project Overview

Many people who suffer from a stroke have very limited use of their upper extremity. Research has shown that strengthening and repetition are the keys to increasing the function of the arm. However, patients are typically unable to perform strengthening activities on their own due to weakness, poor motor control, and the challenge to simply overcome the weight of the upper extremity. Commonly patients repeatedly use incorrect muscle activation, if they have any, which limits function. The objective of this project is to develop a device to assist with physical therapy provided for stroke patients and, possibly, to serve as an assistive device for the patient to perform a limited set of activities of daily living.

Staffing Requirements

Staffing
Team Member Discipline Role / Skills email address
Matt Marshall ISE Faculty Guide, Will work closely with the team on an on-going basis to facilitate success, and will provide ISE and Biomechanics technical support. mmmeie@rit.edu
Elizabeth DeBartolo ME Faculty Consultant, Will provide ME support on an intermittant basis. eademe@rit.edu
Jordan MacIntyre ME DPM Student Who Prepared the PRP jkm4138@rit.edu
TBD Student ME Team Leader, keeps group on task, works closely with faculty guide, helps with machining of final design
TBD Student ME Material Selection, Mechanical Design, helps with machining of final design
TBD Student ME Biomechanics of the design, helps with machining of final design
TBD Student ISE Ergonomics and biomechanics of the design, helps with machining of final design
TBD Student ISE Design for manufacture, helps woth machining of final design

Continuation, Platform, or Building Block Project Information

The Assistive Devices and Bioengineering Track is focused on the application of technology to improve the quality of life for individuals with disabilities, and the development of technologies related to the broad field of bioengineering.

A number of other projects are intimately related to this project, as summarized in the list below:

Related Project Title Start Term End Term
P06216 ARC of Monroe County Therapy Pool Lift 2005-2 2005-3
P07000 Assistive Device and Bioengineering Track 2006-1 On-going
P07001 ARC Communication Board 2006-1 TBD
P07002 Two-way Communication Board 2006-1 TBD
P07003 Mobile Camera Control System 2006-1 TBD
P07004 Mobile Camera Positioning Platform 2006-2 2006-3
P07005 ARC pool lift with adjustable reclining seat and base 2006-2 2006-3

Principle Sponsor or Sponsoring Organization

 Support for this family of projects is generously provided by the National Science Foundation under Award No. BES-0527358.

Support for this family of projects is generously provided by the National Science Foundation under Award No. BES-0527358.

Support for this family of projects is generously provided by the National Science Foundation under Award No. BES-0527358.

Detailed Project Description

A device is needed to assist stroke patients in raising their arm in the sagittal plane. The device will assist in moving the arm from a position at the patient's side (upper arm perpendicular to the ground) to a nearly outstretched position (upper arm approximately parallel to the ground). Ideally, the device will serve two very important roles to benefit the rehabilitation of the stroke patient. First and most importantly, it will provide a device to exercise the affected upper extremity in a physical therapy setting. Second, the device may be used to provide assistance to patients in accomplishing some limited activities of daily living.

Current Product

Current Product

The client currently uses a crudely fashioned device consisting of two flexible rods taped together, end to end. The device is fastened to the patient using a gait belt such that the flexible rods arch over the patient's back and shoulder and attach to the patient via a handle they must hold on to. When the rod is bent, the spring mechanism of the rods assists the patient in raising his arm. The current device is used only during physical therapy sessions.

Though the current device provides the type of assistance desired for the purpose of physical therapy, there are several improvements that the client would like to see made. The design should address the following improvements:

Hierarchical Customer Needs

Starting Position

Starting Position

Ending Position

Ending Position

Relative Importance of the Customer Needs

Needs Summary
Need The Product Needs to Importance
Need 1.1 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Must maintain alignment in shoulder 9
Need 1.2 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Must have an initiate and assis mechanism 9
Need 1.3 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Must have the ability to lock at 90 degrees 3
Need 1.4 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Must be able to be cleaned / sterilized 9
Need 2.1 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Must have the ability to fit patients a various height and weight 3
Need 2.2 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Must be able to vary resistance levels for increasing strength in patients 9
Need 2.3 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Must be able to be used sitting or standing 1
Need 3.1 The Upper Extremity Exerciser stays within budget 9
Need 3.2 The Upper Extremity Exerciser is inexpensive 3
Need 3.3 The Upper Extremity Exerciser is easy to reproduce 3
Need 4.1 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Can be used without assistance 3
Need 4.2 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Has an easy user interface 9
Need 4.3 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Attaches at wrist 3
Need 4.4 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Is mobile 9
Need 5.1 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Assists patients in lifting arm 9
Need 5.2 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Offers resistance when the patient lowers their arm 9
Need 5.3 The Upper Extremity Exerciser has a range of motion of 0 degrees to 120 degrees 9
Need 5.4 The Upper Extremity Exerciser starts the arm at 90 degrees (elbow bent) by side to straight in front of body 9
Need 5.5 The Upper Extremity Exerciser Maintains arm in natural arc 9

Customer Deliverables

Design and build a new and improved upper extremity exerciser, that assists stroke patients in gaining greater control of their arms.

SDI: Proposed concepts and planned final design for customer review and approval, final detailed design concept for customer approval.

SDII: Prototype that has been tested with a healthy, surrogate patient, User's Manual, parts list including sources for replacing consumables, and training session for Nazareth Physical Therapy Staff

Customer and Sponsor Involvement

The team will be expected to carry out the vast majority of their interactions with the Team Guide (Dr. Marshall), and the faculty consultant (Dr. Debartolo). The customer, J.J. Mowder from Nazareth, will be available for a series of meetings during the course of the project. It is anticipated that Nazareth representatives will meet with the team approximately 3 times during senior design 1 (beginning, middle, and end), and twice during senior design 2 (middle and end). The team will also be in constant contact with the customer throughout senior design, via email, to ensure that all needs are being met. Dr. Marshall will participate with team communications electronically, through the web site as well.

Regulatory Requirements

Project Budget and Special Procurement Processes

The National Science Foundation has sponsored the projects within this family. Dr Debartolo has allocated around $1200 for this project. The team will be required to keep track of all expenses incurred with the project to insure that the budget is being followed. All purchases must be approved by either Dr Marshall or Dr Debartolo. The team is responsible for providing all receipts, copies of invoices, shipping documents, and proper use of tax exempt forms, etc.

This budget is for producing one upper extremity exerciser. The cost to manufacture subsequent copies of the final design should be borne by the customer or physical therapy office that wishes to use the product in their office.

Intellectual Property Considerations

All work to be completed by students in this track is expected to be released to the public domain. Students, Faculty, Staff, and other participants in the project will be expected to release rights to their designs, documents, drawings, etc., to the public domain, so that others may freely build upon the results and findings without constraint.

Students, Faculty, and Staff associated with the project are encouraged to publish findings, data, and results openly.

Engineering Specifications

List of Metrics

The table below presents the metrics that will be used by the team to design against.

List of Metrics
Metric No. Need Nos. Metric Importance Units
1 3.3, 3.3 b, 4.1, 4.2 Patient will be able to use on own with only provided directions 9 Test non-technical people's ability to use
2 1.1, 1.2, 5.1 a, 5.5 Force on arm must be 20% of OSHA's standards for safe lifting 9 N
3 1.2, 5.1, 5.1 a, 5.5 Torque felt on arm must be equivalent to natural movement 9 in-lbs
4 1.3, 5.3, 5.4 Angle between torso and arm must be able to be controlled 9 degrees
5 3.1, 3.2, 3.2 a, 3.3 Initial cost (of materials and construction) is low 3 US dollars
6 3.3 a, 3.3 b, 3.3 c Maintenance cost is low 3 US dollars / year
7 3.3 a, 3.3 b Locally-obtained materials (i.e. store bought) 3 % of materials
8 1.1, 1.2, 5.1 a, 5.5 Movement of arm restricted to certain rate 9 degrees / sec
9 2.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 Patients will be able to use at home, completely independently in daily activities 1 Test non-technical people's ability to use
10 Lasts for a long time 3 years
11 1.4 Each part can be cleaned / sterilized 9 % of parts
12 1.4, 2.1, 2.2 Can be used on a variety of patients 9 Yes or No
13 2.1, 2.2 Adjustable for size of patient 9 n/a
14 2.2, 5.2 Resistance is 20% of OSHA's standards for safe lifting 9 n/a
15 2.2 Resistance can be adjusted 3 n/a
16 3.2, 4.1, 4.2 Complete Package, includes product, user manual and parts list including sources for replacing consumables 9 n/a

The engineering specifications directly relate to the customer needs as previously outlined. The following matrix outlines this relationship.

Needs - Metrics Matrix
Needs and Metrics Metric 1 Metric 2 Metric 3 Metric 4 Metric 5 Metric 6 Metric 7 Metric 8 Metric 9 Metric 10 Metric 11 Metric 12 Metric 13 Metric 14 Metric 15 Metric 16
Need 1.1 X X
Need 1.2 X X X
Need 1.3 X
Need 1.4 X X
Need 2.1 X X
Need 2.2 X X X X
Need 2.3 X
Need 3.1 X
Need 3.2 X X
Need 3.2 a X
Need 3.3 X X
Need 3.3 a X X
Need 3.3 b X X X
Need 3.3 c X X
Need 4.1 X X X
Need 4.2 X X X
Need 4.3 X
Need 4.4 X
Need 5.1 X
Need 5.1 a X X X
Need 5.2 X
Need 5.3 X
Need 5.4 X
Need 5.5 X X X

Safety Constraints

Detailed Course Deliverables

Note that this level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.

See Senior Design I Course Deliverables for detail.

The following tasks should be completed by the end of Senior Design 1:

The following tasks should be completed by the end of Senior Design 2:

Preliminary Work Breakdown

The following roles are not necessarily to be followed by the team. It is merely to justify the number of students from each discipline. The student team is expected to develop their own work breakdown structure, consistent with the general work outline presented in the workshop series at the beginning of SD1. However, the customer requests a level of detail NO GREATER than weekly tasks to be completed by each student team member for the benefit of the other team members. The customer DOES NOT request any level of detail finer than one-week intervals, but will assist the team members if they wish to develop a finer level of detail to support their own efforts.

Team Member Week 0->1 Tasks

(8 Dec 06)

Week 1->2 Tasks

(15 Dec 06)

Week 2->3 Tasks

(22 Dec 06)

ME One (Team Leader) Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Assign roles and responsibilities to team members. Create final overall plan and schedule for each of the team members. Finalize the one page project summary Begin to research various ways to control resistance. Begin torque calculations for the force the patient will feel on his / her arm during use of this type of device.
ME Two Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Begin to look at and test various materials that may be used for exerciser. Test the resistance, strength, yield stress, etc. of materials, keeping in mind what this device is being used for. Begin testing with materials used in current physical therapy devices. Determine key materials to be used. If necessary, develop test plan for other material testing.
ME Three Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Determine how to attach the device to the patient. Look at ways to adjust for the height and the weight of the individual. Determine how to control the range of motion. Also, determine how to "lock" the device at ninety degrees.
ME Four Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Identify some design weaknesses with current design. Look at the differences between current upper extremity exerciser and more common physical therapy devices to determine possible improvements. You may need to return to Nazareth to complete this. Begin to research various ways to control resistance. Begin torque calculations for the force the patient will feel on his / her arm during use of this type of device.
ISE One Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Video tape several people making desired motion, study tapes in order to fully understand the movement made while reaching. Research health regulations and codes for physical therapy devices. Determine possible restrictions on design , that may not be defined in needs matrix. Apply Naiosh Lifting equation to desired motion, look into safe lifting for stoke patients.
ISE Two esearch current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Video tape several people making desired motion, study tapes in order to fully understand the movement made while reaching. Research other physical therapy offices to learn if any other office has been treating this type of injury, if so research the device they use. Look into biomechanics, and how the muscles will move with device.

Three-Week SDI Schedule

This project will closely follow the three week project workshop schedule presented in SD1. See the Course Calender for Details.

In addition, the following tasks should be completed within the first few weeks of SD1:

Grading and Assessment Scheme

Grading of students in this project will be fully consistent with grading policies established for the SD1 and SD2 courses. The following level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.

Level D:
The student team will take the existing design and make minimal changes, essentially just rebuilding current model.
Level C:
The student team will make many minor adjustments to the current model. The student team will not have met the majority of the customer needs.
Level B:
The student team will deliver a new model, that meets the majority of the needs. The new model will still need the assistance of a physical therapists and the patient will not be able to use the product at home.
Level A:
The student team will deliver a new model, that meets all of the customer's needs. The new machine will be able to be adjusted for both the size and the strength of the patient. The patient will be able to take product home and use on their own to assist in daily living. This model will have the possibility to be introduced as a product for use on a widespread basis and will have manufacturability for other therapists.

Required Resources

Faculty
Item Source Description Available
Prof. Marshall ISE Faculty Guide/Coordinator/Mentor Yes
Prof. Debartolo ME Mechanical Engineering Consultant Yes
J.J. Mowder PT Customer Yes
Environment
Item Source Description Available
Physical Therapy Department Nazareth, Carrol Hall Observe current product in use Yes
ME Shop ME 09-2360 Parts Fabrication Yes
Dr Marshall's Lab ISE 09-???? Force Yes