- Project Name
- Upper Extremity Exerciser
- Project Number
- Project Family
- P07000 Assitive Device Technology Family of Projects
- Bioengineering and Assistive Device Technology
- Start Term
- End Term
- Faculty Guide
- Dr. Matt Marshall (ISE)
- Faculty Consultant
- Dr. Elizabeth Debartolo (ISE)
- Primary Customer
- Nazareth College Physical Therapy Department
- Secondary Customers
- Other Physical Therapy service providers and stroke patients consuming physical therapy services.
- Customer contact information
- J.J. Mowder - Tinney PT, MS, NCS, CWS,
- Director of Physical Therapy, Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy
- Phone: 585-389-2901
- Email: email@example.com
Many people who suffer from a stroke have very limited use of their upper extremity. Research has shown that strengthening and repetition are the keys to increasing the function of the arm. However, patients are typically unable to perform strengthening activities on their own due to weakness, poor motor control, and the challenge to simply overcome the weight of the upper extremity. Commonly patients repeatedly use incorrect muscle activation, if they have any, which limits function. The objective of this project is to develop a device to assist with physical therapy provided for stroke patients and, possibly, to serve as an assistive device for the patient to perform a limited set of activities of daily living.
|Team Member||Discipline||Role / Skills||email address|
|Matt Marshall||ISE||Faculty Guide, Will work closely with the team on an on-going basis to facilitate success, and will provide ISE and Biomechanics technical firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Elizabeth DeBartolo||ME||Faculty Consultant, Will provide ME support on an intermittant email@example.com|
|Jordan MacIntyre||ME||DPM Student Who Prepared the PRPfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|TBD Student||ME||Team Leader, keeps group on task, works closely with faculty guide, helps with machining of final design|
|TBD Student||ME||Material Selection, Mechanical Design, helps with machining of final design|
|TBD Student||ME||Biomechanics of the design, helps with machining of final design|
|TBD Student||ISE||Ergonomics and biomechanics of the design, helps with machining of final design|
|TBD Student||ISE||Design for manufacture, helps woth machining of final design|
Continuation, Platform, or Building Block Project Information
The Assistive Devices and Bioengineering Track is focused on the application of technology to improve the quality of life for individuals with disabilities, and the development of technologies related to the broad field of bioengineering.
A number of other projects are intimately related to this project, as summarized in the list below:
|Related Project||Title||Start Term||End Term|
|P06216||ARC of Monroe County Therapy Pool Lift||2005-2||2005-3|
|P07000||Assistive Device and Bioengineering Track||2006-1||On-going|
|P07001||ARC Communication Board||2006-1||TBD|
|P07002||Two-way Communication Board||2006-1||TBD|
|P07003||Mobile Camera Control System||2006-1||TBD|
|P07004||Mobile Camera Positioning Platform||2006-2||2006-3|
|P07005||ARC pool lift with adjustable reclining seat and base||2006-2||2006-3|
Principle Sponsor or Sponsoring Organization
Support for this family of projects is generously provided by the National Science Foundation under Award No. BES-0527358.
Detailed Project Description
A device is needed to assist stroke patients in raising their arm in the sagittal plane. The device will assist in moving the arm from a position at the patient's side (upper arm perpendicular to the ground) to a nearly outstretched position (upper arm approximately parallel to the ground). Ideally, the device will serve two very important roles to benefit the rehabilitation of the stroke patient. First and most importantly, it will provide a device to exercise the affected upper extremity in a physical therapy setting. Second, the device may be used to provide assistance to patients in accomplishing some limited activities of daily living.
The client currently uses a crudely fashioned device consisting of two flexible rods taped together, end to end. The device is fastened to the patient using a gait belt such that the flexible rods arch over the patient's back and shoulder and attach to the patient via a handle they must hold on to. When the rod is bent, the spring mechanism of the rods assists the patient in raising his arm. The current device is used only during physical therapy sessions.
Though the current device provides the type of assistance desired for the purpose of physical therapy, there are several improvements that the client would like to see made. The design should address the following improvements:
- The amount of assistance is currently predetermined by the spring mechanics of the device. Ideally, the device will provide an adjustable level of assistance to accommodate patients with varying levels of function.
- The device should be adaptable to fit for patients of varying size. The current device was developed for a specific patient and does not accommodate a variety of patients.
- The device currently is very crudely constructed. Ideally the device will be streamlined and constructed of materials typical of other types of rehabilitation devices. The new design should consider the possibility of producing multiple units of the device.
- The current design requires full assistance of the physical therapist in order to put it on the patient and in order to use the device. Consideration needs to be given to minimize the awkwardness of putting on the device. More importantly, the patient should be able to use the device by him or herself to perform repeated exercises and, possibly, to assist in performing very simple activities of daily living.
- The device ideally will have a mechanism to limit both the range of motion and the plane through which the patient is able to move his or her arm. This feature will accommodate the varying function of different patients.
Hierarchical Customer Needs
Need 1: Safety
- Need 1.1: Product must maintain alignment in shoulder
- Need 1.2: Product must have an initiate and assist mechanism, in order to ensure that the arm does not "fly up" during use
- Need 1.3: Product must have the ability to lock at 90 degrees (arm parallel to ground)
- Need 1.4: Must be able to clean / sterilize product between users
Need 2: Adjustability
- Need 2.1: Must have the ability to fit patients of various height and weight
- Need 2.2: Must be able to vary resistance levels for increasing strength in patients
- Need 2.3: Must be able to use either sitting or standing
Need 3: Economical
- Need 3.1: The initial design and development must stay within the budget of $1200
- Need 3.2: Device must be affordable for future
- Need 3.2.a: Device must have the ability to be mass produced inexpensively
- Need 3.3: Device must be easy to reproduce
- Need 3.3.a: Materials must be easily obtained, i.e. store bought
- Need 3.3.b: Materials must be inexpensive
- Need 3.3.c: Must have the ability to be repaired easily and affordably
Need 4: Ease of Use
- Need 4.1: Patient must be able to use device without assitance
- Need 4.2: Product must have an easy user interface
- Need 4.3: Device must attach at wrist (no handle), in order to assist in the patient's daily activities
- Need 4.4: Device must be mobile, eventually patient will be able to take home to assist in daily activities
Need 5: Maintains Natural Movement in
- Need 5.1: Product must assist patients in lifting
arm, essentially removing the affects of gravity
- Need 5.1.a: Product must have a dynamic assist mechanism when the patient is raising their arm
- Need 5.2: Device must offer resistance when the patient lowers their arm
- Need 5.3: The devices range of motion must be 0 degrees to 120 degrees (angle between torso and arm)
- Need 5.4: Arm must start at 90 degrees (elbow bent) by side, to straight in front of body (see picture)
- Need 5.5: Device must maintain arm in natural arc
- Need 5.1: Product must assist patients in lifting arm, essentially removing the affects of gravity
Relative Importance of the Customer Needs
|Need||The Product||Needs to||Importance|
|Need 1.1||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Must maintain alignment in shoulder||9|
|Need 1.2||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Must have an initiate and assis mechanism||9|
|Need 1.3||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Must have the ability to lock at 90 degrees||3|
|Need 1.4||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Must be able to be cleaned / sterilized||9|
|Need 2.1||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Must have the ability to fit patients a various height and weight||3|
|Need 2.2||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Must be able to vary resistance levels for increasing strength in patients||9|
|Need 2.3||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Must be able to be used sitting or standing||1|
|Need 3.1||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||stays within budget||9|
|Need 3.2||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||is inexpensive||3|
|Need 3.3||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||is easy to reproduce||3|
|Need 4.1||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Can be used without assistance||3|
|Need 4.2||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Has an easy user interface||9|
|Need 4.3||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Attaches at wrist||3|
|Need 4.4||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Is mobile||9|
|Need 5.1||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Assists patients in lifting arm||9|
|Need 5.2||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Offers resistance when the patient lowers their arm||9|
|Need 5.3||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||has a range of motion of 0 degrees to 120 degrees||9|
|Need 5.4||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||starts the arm at 90 degrees (elbow bent) by side to straight in front of body||9|
|Need 5.5||The Upper Extremity Exerciser||Maintains arm in natural arc||9|
Design and build a new and improved upper extremity exerciser, that assists stroke patients in gaining greater control of their arms.
SDI: Proposed concepts and planned final design for customer review and approval, final detailed design concept for customer approval.
SDII: Prototype that has been tested with a healthy, surrogate patient, User's Manual, parts list including sources for replacing consumables, and training session for Nazareth Physical Therapy Staff
Customer and Sponsor Involvement
The team will be expected to carry out the vast majority of their interactions with the Team Guide (Dr. Marshall), and the faculty consultant (Dr. Debartolo). The customer, J.J. Mowder from Nazareth, will be available for a series of meetings during the course of the project. It is anticipated that Nazareth representatives will meet with the team approximately 3 times during senior design 1 (beginning, middle, and end), and twice during senior design 2 (middle and end). The team will also be in constant contact with the customer throughout senior design, via email, to ensure that all needs are being met. Dr. Marshall will participate with team communications electronically, through the web site as well.
- The design shall comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The team's design project report should include references to, and compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations.
- The design shall comply with all applicable RIT Policies and Procedures. The team's design project report should include references to, and compliance with all applicable RIT Policies and Procedures.
- Wherever practical, the design should follow industry standard codes and standards (e.g. Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS), FCC regulations, IEEE standards, and relevant safety standards as prescribed by IEC, including IEC60601). The team's design project report should include references to, and compliance with industry codes or standards.
Project Budget and Special Procurement Processes
The National Science Foundation has sponsored the projects within this family. Dr Debartolo has allocated around $1200 for this project. The team will be required to keep track of all expenses incurred with the project to insure that the budget is being followed. All purchases must be approved by either Dr Marshall or Dr Debartolo. The team is responsible for providing all receipts, copies of invoices, shipping documents, and proper use of tax exempt forms, etc.
This budget is for producing one upper extremity exerciser. The cost to manufacture subsequent copies of the final design should be borne by the customer or physical therapy office that wishes to use the product in their office.
Intellectual Property Considerations
All work to be completed by students in this track is expected to be released to the public domain. Students, Faculty, Staff, and other participants in the project will be expected to release rights to their designs, documents, drawings, etc., to the public domain, so that others may freely build upon the results and findings without constraint.
Students, Faculty, and Staff associated with the project are encouraged to publish findings, data, and results openly.
List of Metrics
The table below presents the metrics that will be used by the team to design against.
|Metric No.||Need Nos.||Metric||Importance||Units|
|1||3.3, 3.3 b, 4.1, 4.2||Patient will be able to use on own with only provided directions||9||Test non-technical people's ability to use|
|2||1.1, 1.2, 5.1 a, 5.5||Force on arm must be 20% of OSHA's standards for safe lifting||9||N|
|3||1.2, 5.1, 5.1 a, 5.5||Torque felt on arm must be equivalent to natural movement||9||in-lbs|
|4||1.3, 5.3, 5.4||Angle between torso and arm must be able to be controlled||9||degrees|
|5||3.1, 3.2, 3.2 a, 3.3||Initial cost (of materials and construction) is low||3||US dollars|
|6||3.3 a, 3.3 b, 3.3 c||Maintenance cost is low||3||US dollars / year|
|7||3.3 a, 3.3 b||Locally-obtained materials (i.e. store bought)||3||% of materials|
|8||1.1, 1.2, 5.1 a, 5.5||Movement of arm restricted to certain rate||9||degrees / sec|
|9||2.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4||Patients will be able to use at home, completely independently in daily activities||1||Test non-technical people's ability to use|
|10||Lasts for a long time||3||years|
|11||1.4||Each part can be cleaned / sterilized||9||% of parts|
|12||1.4, 2.1, 2.2||Can be used on a variety of patients||9||Yes or No|
|13||2.1, 2.2||Adjustable for size of patient||9||n/a|
|14||2.2, 5.2||Resistance is 20% of OSHA's standards for safe lifting||9||n/a|
|15||2.2||Resistance can be adjusted||3||n/a|
|16||3.2, 4.1, 4.2||Complete Package, includes product, user manual and parts list including sources for replacing consumables||9||n/a|
Needs Related to the Metrics
The engineering specifications directly relate to the customer needs as previously outlined. The following matrix outlines this relationship.
|Needs and Metrics||Metric 1||Metric 2||Metric 3||Metric 4||Metric 5||Metric 6||Metric 7||Metric 8||Metric 9||Metric 10||Metric 11||Metric 12||Metric 13||Metric 14||Metric 15||Metric 16|
|Need 3.2 a||X|
|Need 3.3 a||X||X|
|Need 3.3 b||X||X||X|
|Need 3.3 c||X||X|
|Need 5.1 a||X||X||X|
- Product must maintain natural alignment in shoulder in order to prevent further injury to patient
- Product must have the ability to lock at 90 degrees (arm parallel to ground), for beginning patients
- The device must have an initiate and assist mechanism: Patient must give a little force to begin lifting arm, the amount of force the patient gives is directly proportional to the force the device takes over with, in the rest of the raising motion. This is to ensure that the arm does not "fly up" and cause pain to the patient
- The device must have the ability to vary the resistance level during the lowering of the arm, to account for the strengths of various patients
Detailed Course Deliverables
Note that this level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.
See Senior Design I Course Deliverables for detail.
The following tasks should be completed by the end of Senior Design 1:
- Each team member must put on and test the current upper extremity exerciser
- Characterize the current system and list improvements
- Ease of Manufacture
- Adjustability to a variety of patients
- Design of a new upper extremity exerciser using Design for Manufacture, and OSHA's standards for safe lifting
- Material Selection
- Order any necessary parts with long lead time
- Develop a comprehensive test plan
The following tasks should be completed by the end of Senior Design 2:
- Deliver a working prototype of the upper extremity exerciser that has been tested on a healthy, surrogate patient
- Develop instructions for use
- Train the Nazareth physical therapy staff in the new upper extremity exerciser
Preliminary Work Breakdown
The following roles are not necessarily to be followed by the team. It is merely to justify the number of students from each discipline. The student team is expected to develop their own work breakdown structure, consistent with the general work outline presented in the workshop series at the beginning of SD1. However, the customer requests a level of detail NO GREATER than weekly tasks to be completed by each student team member for the benefit of the other team members. The customer DOES NOT request any level of detail finer than one-week intervals, but will assist the team members if they wish to develop a finer level of detail to support their own efforts.
Week 0->1 Tasks
(8 Dec 06)
Week 1->2 Tasks
(15 Dec 06)
Week 2->3 Tasks
(22 Dec 06)
|ME One (Team Leader)||Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Assign roles and responsibilities to team members.||Create final overall plan and schedule for each of the team members. Finalize the one page project summary||Begin to research various ways to control resistance. Begin torque calculations for the force the patient will feel on his / her arm during use of this type of device.|
|ME Two||Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs.||Begin to look at and test various materials that may be used for exerciser. Test the resistance, strength, yield stress, etc. of materials, keeping in mind what this device is being used for. Begin testing with materials used in current physical therapy devices.||Determine key materials to be used. If necessary, develop test plan for other material testing.|
|ME Three||Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs.||Determine how to attach the device to the patient. Look at ways to adjust for the height and the weight of the individual.||Determine how to control the range of motion. Also, determine how to "lock" the device at ninety degrees.|
|ME Four||Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs.||Identify some design weaknesses with current design. Look at the differences between current upper extremity exerciser and more common physical therapy devices to determine possible improvements. You may need to return to Nazareth to complete this.||Begin to research various ways to control resistance. Begin torque calculations for the force the patient will feel on his / her arm during use of this type of device.|
|ISE One||Research current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Video tape several people making desired motion, study tapes in order to fully understand the movement made while reaching.||Research health regulations and codes for physical therapy devices. Determine possible restrictions on design , that may not be defined in needs matrix.||Apply Naiosh Lifting equation to desired motion, look into safe lifting for stoke patients.|
|ISE Two||esearch current devices used for various types of physical therapy (i.e. sports injuries, rehabilitation from surgery, accidents, etc.), study the material of the devices and the mechanisms used to create desired motion. Meet with J.J. regarding current design and refine customer needs. Video tape several people making desired motion, study tapes in order to fully understand the movement made while reaching.||Research other physical therapy offices to learn if any other office has been treating this type of injury, if so research the device they use.||Look into biomechanics, and how the muscles will move with device.|
Three-Week SDI Schedule
This project will closely follow the three week project workshop schedule presented in SD1. See the Course Calender for Details.
In addition, the following tasks should be completed within the first few weeks of SD1:
- The team must go to Nazareth and see the current product and actually test it
- The team must videotape several people making the desired movement in order to get a firm grasp on the motion that must be produced with the upper extremity exerciser.
Grading and Assessment Scheme
Grading of students in this project will be fully consistent with grading policies established for the SD1 and SD2 courses. The following level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.
- Level D:
- The student team will take the existing design and make minimal changes, essentially just rebuilding current model.
- Level C:
- The student team will make many minor adjustments to the current model. The student team will not have met the majority of the customer needs.
- Level B:
- The student team will deliver a new model, that meets the majority of the needs. The new model will still need the assistance of a physical therapists and the patient will not be able to use the product at home.
- Level A:
- The student team will deliver a new model, that meets all of the customer's needs. The new machine will be able to be adjusted for both the size and the strength of the patient. The patient will be able to take product home and use on their own to assist in daily living. This model will have the possibility to be introduced as a product for use on a widespread basis and will have manufacturability for other therapists.
|Prof. Marshall||ISE||Faculty Guide/Coordinator/Mentor||Yes|
|Prof. Debartolo||ME||Mechanical Engineering Consultant||Yes|
|Physical Therapy Department||Nazareth, Carrol Hall||Observe current product in use||Yes|
|ME Shop||ME 09-2360||Parts Fabrication||Yes|
|Dr Marshall's Lab||ISE 09-????||Force||Yes|