P07121: Kozak MAV Project
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Administrative Information

Project Name
Kozak Micro Air Vehicle Project
Project Number
P07121
Project Family
P07120 Micro Air Vehicle
Track
Aerospace Systems and Technology Track
Start Term
2006-1
End Term
2006-3
Faculty Guide
Dr. Kozak (ME)
Primary Customer
Dr. Kozak (ME)
Secondary Customers
SAE Design Competition
Customer contact information
Dr. Kozak (ME)
jdkeme@rit.edu

Project Overview

The mission of this year's team is to complete the surveillance portion of the 2007 International Micro Air Vehicle Competition by improving, but not redesigning, last year's MAV. To accomplish this, the customer set the two following objectives: (1) rebuild and flight test last year's MAV, and (2) introduce new concepts to improve last year's MAV. The team must provide complete documentation of the analysis, design, manufacturing, fabrication, test, and evaluation of the new MAV to a level of detail that a subsequent team can build upon their work with no more than one week of background research.

Staffing Requirements

Staffing
Team Member Discipline Role / Skills email address
Jeffrey Kozak ME Faculty Guide, Will work closely with the team on an on-going basis to facilitate success. jdkeme@rit.edu
David Blonski IE Project Integration dab9894@rit.edu
Benjamin Metz ME Materials and Manufacturing bam5795@rit.edu
Daniel Segar ME Aerodynamics dss1092@rit.edu
Timothy Nowicki ME Flight Testing tjn2595@rit.edu
Perry Young ME Propulsion ply1631@rit.edu
Patrick O'Neil ME Flight Testing pto3325@rit.edu
Geoff Amey CE Camera, Miscellaneous Electronics gca3020@rit.edu
Mark Baybutt EE Electronics mab3487@rit.edu
Andrea Wyant EE Propulsion amw4607@rit.edu

Project Information

The mission of the Aerospace Systems and Technology Track of projects is to develop the stands, platforms, propulsion systems, vehicles, and controls to be integrated as complete aeronautical and aerospace projects for use in a variety of education, research & development, and outreach applications within and beyond the RIT KGCOE. The collection of projects should use an engineering design process to develop modules and subsystems that can be integrated by subsequent senior design teams. This project, P07121, is the fourth in a series of senior design projects that will likely continue in the future.

The mission of the student team contributing to this track is to develop and enhance an Air Vehicle for the Micro Air Vehicle family of projects. The team must also provide complete documentation of the analysis, design, manufacturing, fabrication, test, and evaluation of each subsystem and vehicle to a level of detail that a subsequent team can build upon their work with no more than one week of background research.

P07121 is a project within the Aerospace Systems and Technology Track, to develop a Micro Air Vechicle to successfully complete this year's Micro Air Vehicle Competition. The focus of this year's MAV will be to incorporate the research and major redesigns from last year's MAV with further improvements to the propulsion system and flight dynamics. Flight testing will be a major source for improvements. The goal of this year's team is not to win the competition but to meet all key customer needs and to continue the trend of improving MAV's at RIT.

Other Projects in the Aerospace Systems and Technology Track are:

Related Project Title Start Term End Term
P07120 Micro Air Vehicle Family 2006-1 on-going
P07121 Kozak MAV Project 2006-1 2006-3
P07122 Small Helicopter Project 2006-1 2006-3
P08140 Modular, Open Architecture Unmanned Air Vehicle Platform (UAV) Family 2006-1 on-going

Principle Sponsor or Sponsoring Organization

This project is supported by a gift from the Boeing Company to the mechanical engineering department at RIT. Imapct Technologies has also offered fund up to $2000 worth of equipment. This is the fourth year that the Boeing Co. is supporting the MAV Sr. Design Project Team and the second year that Impact Technologies is supporting the project. www.boeing.com

To compete in the MAV competition, certain generic needs will be present for team that wishes to participate. The below table contains these needs.

Detailed Project Description

Customer Needs

To compete in the MAV competition, certain generic needs will be present for every team and every MAV that wishes to compete. The below table contains these needs.
Generic Customer Needs
No. Category Need Importance
1 Rebuild last year's MAV 9
2 Improve Flight Capabilities Increase Lift 9
3 Improve Flight Capabilities Improve pod aerodynamics 3
4 Improve Flight Capabilities Decrease roll 3
5 Improve Power Efficiency Increase thrust 9
6 Improve Power Efficiency Decrease power conusmption 1
7 Decrease weight 3
8 Decrease max linear dimension 1
9 Increase camera capabilities 1

The mission of this project to develop a Micro Air Vechicle to successfully complete this year's Micro Air Vehicle Competition. The competition will require the MAV to fly 600 meters, photograph a 1.5-meter sized symbol on the ground, fly another 300 meters, capture a second 1.5-meter sized symbol, and return to the launch site. The images must be legible and given to the judges within 45 minutes of take-off.

The primary customer, Dr. Jeffrey Kozak, representing the mechanical engineering department of RIT, has expressed the project mission and customer needs in the following customer requirements. They are in line with the requirements necessary to successfully complete the MAV Competition.

Customer Requirements

The primary goal for this project is to complete the International MAV Competition. The below matrix includes customer requirements which are in line with competition rules.
Customer Requirements
No. Requirement
1 Able to fly 1200 meters (linear)
2 Able to take 2 legible picture
3 Wireless remote control
4 Stay within budget
5 Stable, consistent launching
6 Able to be flown accurately
7 Must be durable
8 Must provide hard copy of photos
9 Onboard power supply

In order to judge how well the senior design team is meeting the customer needs and requirements, the following table of engineering metrics will be used.

Engineering Metric

Metrics
No. Metric Unit of Measure
1 Lift Coefficient none
2 Drag N
3 Roll Moment Coefficient none
4 Thrust g
5 System Power W
6 Weight g
7 Length cm
8 Resolution lines
9 RF Power mW

The following matrix illustrates how all of the above customer needs will be addressed by the engineering metrics.

Needs and Metrics
Needs and Metrics Need Metric
1 Rebuild last year's MAV none
2 Increase Lift Lift Coefficient
3 Improve pod aerodynamics Drag
4 Decrease roll Roll Moment Coefficient
5 Increase thrust Thrust
6 Decrease Power Consumption System Power
7 Decrease weight Weight
8 Decrease max linear dimension Length
9 Increase camera capabilities Resolution, RF Power

Voice of the Customer, Objective Tree

These objectives should be addressed across a series of projects related to this track. Some individual projects within the track may focus on various areas of these objectives, but all student teams are encouraged to keep the "big picture" in mind, so that their individual project contributions can be more readily integrated with the larger system view.

  1. Constraint Objectives
    • Regulatory Constraints
      • C.1 The final vehicle shall comply with all rules of the 2007 International Micro-Air Vehicle Competition.
      • C.2 Radio Frequencies should be constrained to traditional RC Band Lengths.
    • Academic Constraints
      • C.3 The team shall prepare a technical report, including a set of design drawings and bill of materials supported by engineering analysis.
      • C.4 The team shall deliver all hardware and software, and demonstrate all hardware and software through experimental test and evaluation data.
    • Safety Constraints
      • C.5 Particular attention shall be paid to rotating equipment safety concerns and electrical safety concerns.
      • C.6 Human safety takes precedence over all other design objectives.
      • C.7 Building and facilities safety takes precedence over MAV equipment damage.
      • C.8 The MAV should be robust to damage by inexperienced operators.
  2. Resource Objectives
    • People Resource
      • R.0 The team shall be comprised of 5 ME, 3 EE, and 1 IE student.
      • R.1 1 EE and 1 ME Faculty Advisor will work with the team.
      • R.2 Alumni from previous MAV teams will be used.
    • Equipment Resource
      • R.10 The team members should fabricate most custom components on campus, and the design should consider in-house manufacturing resources.
    • Time Resource
      • R.20 Each student team member should be expected to work a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 16 hours per week on the project. Each student should ideally spend an average of 12 hours per week on the project. The scope of the project has been designed with these limits in mind.
      • R.21 The MAV must be demonstrable at the 2007 International MAV Competition, hosted at RIT in May 2007.
  3. Economic Objectives
    • Materials Costs
      • R.30 The total development budget for the MAV is not anticipated to exceed $2,000 during AY06-07.
    • Labor Costs
      • R.40 The design team is not expected to account for the nominal labor costs of RIT shop personnel as long as the time commitment does not greatly exceed that of other typical SD projects.
      • R.41 The design team is not expected to account for the nominal labor costs of TA's, Faculty, or other staff assigned to assist and guide then team, as long as the time commitment does not greatly exceed that of other typical SD projects.
    • Amortization Costs
      • R.50 The design team is not expected to recover the investment costs associated with the platform development.
  4. Scope Objectives
    • S.1 The MAV should be designed to compete in the Surveillance-only portion of the competition.
    • S.2 The design team should use last year competition.
    • S.4 The MAV design shall be available for use and adoption by other future MAV design teams
  5. Technology Objectives
    • T.1 The propulsion system should be designed to optimize thrust to weight ratio.
    • T.2 Electrical systems should be integrated and manufactured on fiber glass board.
    • T.3 The MAV Platform should be thermo-set (cured) to avoid warping.
    • T.4 Optimize design of leading edge faring to improve lift to drag radio.
    • T.5 MAV Platform should use single elavon or morphed body

Background Information Provided by the Customer

This is the fourth senior design team charged with competing in the International MAV Competition.
Useful Web Resources
MAV Platform 2006
MAV Propulsion 2006
MAV Design Team 2005
MAV Design Team 2004
Example Competition Rules
Initial Concepts to Consider
  1. Use 2 batteries instead of 3
  2. Redesign actuators to reduce weight
  3. Design propulsion system for 1.5:1 thrust to weight ratio
  4. Thermo-set design
  5. Manufacture leading edge faring for improved drag ratio
  6. Morph MAV rear body
  7. Establish angle of flight based on thrust and drag
  8. Design in side thrust to avoid counter-rotation problems
  9. Get used to new controller

Customer Deliverables

Design, build, and fully characterized working Micro Air Vehicle. See the "Detailed Course Deliverables" section for more specifics.

Customer and Sponsor Involvement

The team will be expected to carry out the vast majority of their interactions with the Team Guide (Dr. Kozak). In the case that an EE faculty member joins the team, MEs will conduct most of their work with Dr. Kozak and EEs will conduct most of their work with the EE faculty member. Since Dr. Kozak is the customer, all questions regarding scope or objective should be directed to Dr. Kozak, and it is anticipated that Dr. Kozak will be accessible for the duration of senior design.

Regulatory Requirements

The MAV should comply with all rules of the International MAV Competition.

Project Budget and Special Procurement Processes

The Boeing Company has allocated $2,000 to the MAV Senior Design Team for AY06-07. The team is expected to stay within its budget, and it is expected that expenditures be in-line to satisfy customer requirements and project objectives.

The team will be required to keep track of all expenses incurred with the project.

Purchases for this track will be run through the mechanical engineering procurement system. Dave Hathaway (Operations Manager) for the ME department will be point of contact for most purchases associate with this project and this track. It is recommended that each team appoint one person to act as the purchasing agent for the team, and that all interactions between the team and Dave go through the single purchasing agent. The team is responsible for providing all receipts, copies of invoices, shipping documents, and proper use of tax exempt forms, etc.

Intellectual Property Considerations

All work to be completed by students in this track is expected to be released to the public domain. Students, Faculty, Staff, and other participants in the project will be expected to release rights to their designs, documents, drawings, etc., to the public domain, so that others may freely build upon the results and findings without constraint.

Students, Faculty, and Staff associated with the project are encouraged to publish findings, data, and results openly.

Engineering Specifications

Engineering Specificaiton
No. Metric Target
1 Lift Coefficient > 0.49
2 Drag (N) < 0.076
3 Roll Moment Coefficient TBD*
4 Thrust to Weight > 1:1
5 System Power (W) > 16.65
6 Length (cm) < 25.4
7 Weight (g) < 96
8 Resolution (lines) > 300
9 RF Power (mW) > 80
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The following are guidelines established by previous senior design teams and should be considered during design and manufacturing phases of this year's project.
  1. Vertical tail design is key component to yaw stability.
  2. Control surfaces should be added for pitch and roll control and to minimize drag effects.
  3. MAV must be stable in pitch, roll, and yaw.
  4. Design in side-thrust to control yaw.
  5. Aircraft planform should minimize tip vortices.
  6. Aircraft should maintain stability/lift/drag for the duration of the flight.
  7. Wing skin/control surfaces should integrate fully with wing skeleton, be effective in dynamic loading, and meet flexibility/rigidity needs.
  8. Component housing must protect expensive components, have static center of gravity, and integrate completely with wing skeleton and components.

Safety Constraints

Detailed Course Deliverables

The following tasks should be completed by the end of SD1:
The following tasks should be completed by the end of SD2:

Preliminary Work Breakdown

Person Week 0->1 Tasks

(8 Dec 06)

Week 1->2 Tasks

(15 Dec 06)

Week 2->3 Tasks

(22 Dec 06)

ME Student 1 Review last year's research and literature review and prepare presentation for Aerodynamics. Reassemble last year's MAV Test fly old MAV
ME Student 2 Review last year's research and literature review and prepare presentation for Aerodynamics. Identify weight and thrust goals for new MAV Test fly old MAV
ME Student 3 Review last year's research and literature review and prepare presentation for Materials and Manufacturing. Reassemble last year's MAV Research feasibility of morphing vs. elavons
ME Student 4 Review last year's research and literature review and prepare presentation for Materials and Manufacturing. Reassemble last year's MAV Research feasibility of morphing vs. elavons
ME Student 5 Review last year's research and literature review and prepare presentation for Propulsion. Identify weight and thrust goals for new MAV Work with EE's to design propulsion system to design propulsion system based on new weight and thrust goals
EE Student 1 Review last year's research and literature review and prepare presentation for electrical components. Reassemble last year's MAV Begin designing propulsion system based on new weight and thrust goals
EE Student 2 Review last year's research and literature review and prepare presentation for propulsion. Reassemble last year's MAV Begin designing propulsion system based on new weight and thrust goals
CE Student 1 Review last year's research and literature review and prepare presentation for electrical components. Research feasibility of "plug & play" fiber glass undersystem Begin design specs for undersystem

Grading and Assessment Scheme

Grading

Grading of students in this project will be fully consistent with grading policies established for the SD1 and SD2 courses. The following level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the milestones reached. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.
Grades
Grade Level SD1 Accomplishments SD2 Accomplishments
Level D Rebuilds last year's MAV Completes MAV Competition circuit, captures 2 images, and download images for judges. Makes only minor changes to last year's MAV.
Level C Level D plus identifies new concepts MAV Level D plus makes some minor and a few major changes to last year's MAV. Significant improvement to one (1) of the following: weight, size, flight performance, imaging capability.
Level B Level C plus validate concepts for new MAV. Design should include significant improvement to at least two of the following: weight, size, flight performance, imaging capability Level C plus makes several significant changes to last year' MAV. Significant improvement to two (2) of the following: weight, size, flight performance, imaging capability.
Level A Level B plus begin implementing and testing concepts for new MAV, and includes improvements to at least two of the following: weight, size, flight performance, imaging capability Level B plus makes several significant changes to last year's MAV. Significant improvement to at least three (3) of the following: weight, size, flight performance, imaging capability.

Required Resources

Faculty
Item Source Description Available
Prof. Kozak ME Faculty Guide/Coordinator/Mentor Yes
TBD EE Technical Consultant Yes
Environment
Item Source Description Available
Windtunnel room or substitute ME 09-2230 Work Space/Storage Yes
Equipment
Item Source Description Available
Equipment from 05-06 Kozak Various Yes

The team members will be expected to procure the materials needed for the project, excluding the following:

Materials
Item Source Description Available
Same as 05-06 TBD Varies Yes

Issues and Concerns

  1. Improving last year's MAV without completely redesigning it.
  2. Reviewing all research and literature.
  3. Rebuilding last year's MAV in timely manner.
  4. Feasibility of fiber-glass undersystem.
  5. Large team.