Project Readiness Package
- Project Name
- UV-Tube Water Disinfection Project
- Project Number
- Project Family
- P07400 Sustainable Technologies for the Third World
- Sustainable Products, Systems, and Technologies
- Start Term
- End Term
- Faculty Guide
- Dr. Brian Thorn (ISE)
- Faculty Consultant
- Dr. Rob Stevens (ME)
- Primary Customer
- People in rural areas of third-world countries, specifically in South America, who do not currently have access to safe drinking water.
- Secondary Customers
- Dr. Andres Carrano (ISE)
- Potential Distribution Agencies (UN, EPA, etc)
- Customer contact information
- Andres Carrano - firstname.lastname@example.org
The mission of this student team is to redesign and further develop a series of point-of-use Ultraviolet (UV) water disinfection devices suitable for use in rural areas of developing nations where other water treatment methods cannot be applied because of their cost, inconvenience, limited availability, or energy requirements. The intent is to enhance a proven concept and make it cheaper to manufacture, easier to service, more robust in operation, compatible with a variety of regionally available water sources, and more environmentally benign.
|Team Member||Discipline||Role / Skills||email address|
|Brian Thorn||TBA||Faculty Guide, Will work closely with the team on an on-going basis to facilitate email@example.com|
|Andres Carrano||ISE||Customer, will communicate needs and project firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Rob Stevens||ME||Faculty Consultant; will provide ME discipline technical support on an intermittant email@example.com|
|Manaal Eisa||ISE||Life-cycle Assessment, Manufacturing Processes, Documentationfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Miguel Bazan||ISE||Life-cycle Assessment, Manufacturing Processes, Documentationemail@example.com|
|Micah Brewer||ME||Mechanical Design, Develop alternative power sources for the device (e.g. solar, human-powered)||firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Rob Norquest||ME||Pro-E CAD, Fluids Analysisemail@example.com|
|Greg Hupp||ME||Mechanical Design, Materials Selectionfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Anna Murray||ME||Project Management, Mechanical Design, Fatigue Testingemail@example.com|
Continuation, Platform, or Building Block Project Information
The Sustainable Products, Systems, and Technologies Track contains projects which embody sustainable principles; that is they accomplish their goals without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
In the world today 1 in 6 people does not have access to improved drinking water, and water borne illness claims the lives of 1.7 million people annually. Espeically at risk are children. Four hundred million children (1 in 5) have no access to safe water. Dehydration from diarrhea is the leading cause of death in children under the age of five, and there are 5000 deaths every day due to this.
Each of the eight UN Millenium Goals can in part be addressed by improving the quality of water available to people in developing areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that if the UN Millennium Goal for drinking water and sanitation is met, it would provide economic benefits of $1.2 billion (US) due to fewer premature deaths and lower healthcare costs.
This project is to further develop a series of UV Water Disinfection deveices to be used in developing countries, specifically in South America, where on average 45% of population is below the poverty line and 36% live in rural settings where safe water/power may not be available.
This project will be initiated during the Fall Quarter, 2006-1, with other closely related projects, as listed below.
|Related Project||Title||Start Term||End Term|
|P07400||Sustainable Products, Systems, and Technologies Track||2006-1||On-going|
|P07401||EPA Water Disinfection Project||2006-2||2006-3|
|P07403||Eze Kamanu's Garri Processing Project||2006-2||2006-3|
Principle Sponsor or Sponsoring Organization
This project is supported by the ISE Department in the Kate Gleason College of Engineering at RIT.
Detailed Project Description
Interactions with Customers
- First Sponsor Interview
- Interviewer: DPM Student, Anna Murray
- Sponsors: Dr. Andres Carrano, Dr. Brian Thorn, Dr. Rob Stevens
- Date: 21 September 2006
- Interviewer: Thanks for meeting with me. I am looking to get a little more information about the project and the needs of the customer and where the project will be headed.
- First of all, who is going to be using the device?
- Sponsor: This is intended for use in 3rd world countries where people often do not have access to save drinking water.
- Interviewer: Is the intent to be personal use in the home, or community use in a central location?
- Sponsor: This device is designed to be a point of use device through which water passes at a certain rate. It would most likely be in someone's home, although it could also be in a community building where people use it and bring water back to their homes. The important distinction is that the water does not get delivered through a distribution system because the pipes and everything are so corroded and unsanitary, that it defeats the purpose of even disinfecting the water.
- Interviewer: Are there any safety or regulatory constraints we'll need to consider?
- Sponsor: There are some standards to look at, such as WHO and NSF (National Sanitation Federation?). Also, in exploring using this in other countries, you'll have to consider that. It will be important to consider the interaction of materials with the UV light, because some materials react when there are exposed to it. There was a lot of testing done at Berkeley on the extent of disinfection and the required exposure time.
- Interviewer: What are the major things that need to be addressed in the redesign?
- Sponsor: Durability is one. You should spend some time testing how long it will last and also where it will fail when it does, and why. It is also not currently designed to be serviced easily. It is not east to get to the light tube to change it. Cost is a big factor, as well as robustness of the design. You'll probably spend a lot of time examining materials to substitute in the design. The team that designed it spent so much time on testing and making it functional to treat the water that they did not do a good job on the actual design of the device. It would be nice to have features for different operating environments. Also, in Venezuela people almost always have power from the grid, but it would be nice to have it be able to be run independently, through solar or human power. There could be testing of different amounts of turbidity in the water and see how it does. you could add in water filtration.
- Interviewer: When you installed some units in Venezuela last year, did you notice any particular problems?
- Sponsor: It leaked. We did some quick fixes to make the device fit the water coming off of the public system, but the pressure was so high that it was difficult. It would be good to have a way to control the flow of the water. It was designed to be a batch system, but we converted it to handle continuous flow.
- Interviewer: What are cost constraints?
- Sponsor: You have to understand that we're dealing with people that can't afford to pay any amount of money for the product, no matter how inexpensive. If it's $30, it's too much. If it's $5, it's too much. There are certain parts that have to be purchased; for instance, the UV tube itself costs $8, but in general it should be as cheap as possible. The scale of impact increases as the cost of the unit decreases. There also might be opportunities for local individuals to make a business out of assembling or selling them to others in the area. There are current portable systems out on the market that sell for $500 - $1000.
- Interviewer: Who is going to be building the units?
- Sponsor: From a social perspective, it would be great to train one guy to make them, or to teach others so that everyone builds their own. If people make money off of it, it often will fly better. It's also important to use local resources. It would also be good to be able to hand over a package to the UN or somebody with all the instructions of "this is how much it will cost," "this is how you put it together," "here are the tools you need," and so on. That way they can go and distribute them all over.
- Interviewer: What happens to it at the end of its life?
- Sponsor: You should consider disassembly, remanufacturing, and recycling of the parts of the device. You should have a good idea of the lifetime of the part. We already have some data on the bulb life. There are two ways to do it; either set the desired life as a design criteria and then choose materials and design based on that, or build the device and see how well it performs. You should test factors like heat and moisture exposure.
Interpretation of Raw Data in Terms of Customer Needs
Hierarchical Customer Needs
Need 1 - Unit shall be a Robust Design
- Need 1.1 - Can be used with different water sources: plumbing or not
- Need 1.2 - Can be used with plumbing with a variety of flow rates
- Need 1.3 - Can use in many different countries (Multiple languages?)
- Need 1.4 - Will be presentable as a "complete package" with manufacturing instructions, costs, required tooling, and other information all included
- Need 1.5 - Can utilize multiple energy sources (from the grid, solar, human-powered, etc.)
- Need 1.6 - Accepted by people of different cultures
- Need 1.7 - Easy to use
- Need 1.8 - Easy to build
Need 2 - Unit shall be Economical
- Need 2.1 - Should be as low-cost as possible
- Need 2.2 - Production and distribution could become a business venture for local person
Need 3 - Unit shall be Durable
- Need 3.1 - Long lasting
- Need 3.2 - Should be able to predict when and where it will break
- Need 3.3 - Doesn't leak
- Need 3.4 - Dependable
Need 4 - Unit shall be Serviceable
- Need 4.1 - Easy to replace bulb and fix other problems
- Need 4.2 - Reusable/recyclable parts
- Need 4.3 - Materials are easy to get and replace
- Need 4.4 - Able to predict where it will break
Need 5 - Unit shall be Safe
- Need 5.1 - Provides better water than is currently available
- Need 5.2 - Sterilize as many pathogens as possible
- Need 5.3 - Can be effective with many levels of contaminated water
- Need 5.4 - Can handle water with lots of turbidity
- Need 5.5 - Must be point-of-use device, to avoid additional distribution of water after treatment
- Need 5.6 - Materials are safe for a long time (non-reactive)
Need 6 - Unit shall be a Sustainable
- Need 6.1 - Use as many local materials and resources as possible
- Need 6.2 - Safe and efficient end-of-life use
- Need 6.3 - Environmentally benign
Relative Importance of the Customer Needs
|Need||The Product||Needs to||Importance|
|Need 1.1||The Water Disinfection System||Can be used with different water sources: plumbing or not||3|
|Need 1.2||The Water Disinfection System||Can be used with plumbing with a variety of flow rates||3|
|Need 1.3||The Water Disinfection System||can be used in many different countries||1|
|Need 1.4||The Water Disinfection System||Will be presentable as a "complete package" with manufacturing instructions, costs, required tooling, and other information all included||3|
|Need 1.5||The Water Disinfection System||Can utilize multiple energy sounces (from the grid, solar, human-powered, etc.)||3|
|Need 1.6||The Water Disinfection System||Is accepted by people of different cultures||1|
|Need 1.7||The Water Disinfection System||is easy to use||9|
|Need 1.8||The Water Disinfection System||is easy to build||9|
|Need 2.1||The Water Disinfection System||is inexpensive||9|
|Need 2.2||The Water Disinfection System||could be produced and distributed by a local person/organization as a business venture||1|
|Need 3.1||The Water Disinfection System||lasts a long time||3|
|Need 3.2||The Water Disinfection System||Should have data that predicts where it will break||3|
|Need 3.3||The Water Disinfection System||Doesn't leak||9|
|Need 3.4||The Water Disinfection System||is dependable||3|
|Need 4.1||The Water Disinfection System||is easy to fix||9|
|Need 4.2||The Water Disinfection System||has reusable/recyclable parts||1|
|Need 4.3||The Water Disinfection System||is made from materials that are easy to get and replace||3|
|Need 4.4||The Water Disinfection System||Should have data that predicts where it will break||3|
|Need 5.1||The Water Disinfection System||Provides better water than is currently available||9|
|Need 5.2||The Water Disinfection System||Sterilizes as many pathogens as possible||9|
|Need 5.3||The Water Disinfection System||Can be effective with many levels of contaminated water||3|
|Need 5.4||The Water Disinfection System||Can handle water with lots of turbidity||3|
|Need 5.5||The Water Disinfection System||is a point-of-use device, to avoid additional distribution of water after treatment||9|
|Need 5.6||The Water Disinfection System||is made of materials that are safe for a long time (non-reactive)||9|
|Need 6.1||The Water Disinfection System||uses as many local materials and resources as possible||9|
|Need 6.2||The Water Disinfection System||has a safe and efficient end-of-life use||3|
|Need 6.3||The Water Disinfection System||is environmentally benign||3|
Background Information Provided by the Customer
Useful Web Resources
You may find it helpful to review these web resources to get comfortable with UV water disinfection and why it is needed:
RAEL UV-Tube Project These two sites describe the work done by the Renewable and Energy Appropriate Laboratory at UC Berkely to design a UV-Tube water treatment system.
Powerpoint Presentation on Current Design This slide show includes a general overview of the needs, UV technology, and testing that went into the development of the initial design.
2006 UNICEF State of the World's Children This website has a comprehensive, searchable report on statistics for the entire world, including information about access to safe drinking water.
Guidelines for drinking-water quality From World Health Organization
UV Disinfection Fact Sheet National Drinking Water Clearinghouse Tech Brief: A National Drinking Water Clearinghouse Factsheet, Ultraviolet Disinfection
Initial Concepts to Consider
UV Tube Water Disinfection Device developed at UC Berkely and field tested in Mexico, Haiti, and Sri Lanka
- Ferro-Cement, Stainless Steel Lined PVC, Stainless with Bucket
Design and build working prototype of the UV water disinfection system, with full documentation of manufacturing instructions, maintenance, and cost. See the "Detailed Course Deliverables" section for more specifics.
Customer and Sponsor Involvement
The team will be expected to carry out the vast majority of their interactions with the Team Guide. Dr. Carrano and Dr. Thorn (the sponsors and customers) will be available for a series of meetings during the course of the project. They will meet with the team during the beginning of SD1 to lay out common goals and objectives of the project. It is anticipated that Dr. Thorn and Dr. Carrano will meet with the team (or multiple related teams) for 2 hour meetings approximately 4 times during senior design 1, and twice during senior design 2. They will participate with team communications electronically as well as through the web site.
- The design shall comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The team's design project report should include references to, and compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations.
- The design shall comply with all applicable RIT Policies and Procedures. The team's design project report should include references to, and compliance with all applicable RIT Policies and Procedures.
- The design shall comply with any health regulations indicated (by WHO, etc.), including adequate dosages of UV exposure and required levels of bacteria and viruses in the water.
Project Budget and Special Procurement Processes
The ISE Department has allocated $5,000 to this project for AY06-07. The team will be required to keep track of all expenses incurred with their project, and to ensure that the individual project budget is being followed.
- The cost to manufacture subsequent copies of the final design, sub-assembly, or part should decrease with increasing volume.
- The cost to manufacture subsequent copies of the final design, sub-assembly, or part should decrease with decreasing levels of instrumentation, but shall remain capable of being retro-fitted with instrumentation after initial manufacturing.
- The cost to manufacture subsequent copies of the final design, sub-assembly, or part should be borne by the team, faculty member, research project, company, or department desiring to use the item for their research and development work.
- The design team is not expected to account for the nominal labor costs of RIT shop personnel as long as their time commitment does not greatly exceed that of other typical SD projects.
- The design team is not expected to account for the nominal labor costs of TAs, Faculty, or other staff assigned to assist and guide then team, as long as their time commitment does not greatly exceed that of other typical SD projects.
- The design team is not expected to recover the investment costs associated with the device development.
Intellectual Property Considerations
All work to be completed by students in this track is expected to be released to the public domain. Students, Faculty, Staff, and other participants in the project will be expected to release rights to their designs, documents, drawings, etc., to the public domain, so that others may freely build upon the results and findings without constraint. Students, Faculty, and Staff associated with the project are encouraged to publish findings, data, and results openly.
List of Metrics
The table below presents the metrics that will be used by the team to design against.
|Metric No.||Need Nos.||Metric||Importance||Units|
|1||1.1, 1.2||Flow restricted to certain rate||1||gpm (gal/min)|
|2||1.1, 1.2||Accepts flow from plumbing source||3||yes/no|
|3||1.1||Can accept a batch of water||3||yes/no|
|4||1.8||People will be able to build and install it with only provided instructions||9||test non-technical people's ability to build and install|
|5||1.7, 4.1, 4.3||People will be able to use it with only provided instructions||9||test non-technical people's ability to use and repair/troubleshoot|
|6||2.1, 2.2||Initial cost (of materials and construction) is low||9||US Dollars|
|7||2.1, 4.3||Maintenance cost is low||9||US Dollars/year|
|8||4.3, 2.2, 6.1||Locally-obtained materials||3||% of materials|
|9||3.1||Lasts for a long time||3||years|
|10||6.3||Low environmental impacts in production and use||3||LCA Method TBD|
|11||6.2, 6.3, 4.2||Recyclable and reusable parts||1||% of parts|
|12||3.3, 1.2||Can accept water at certain flow rate before spilling over||1||gpm|
|13||1.3, 1.6||Instructions in English and Spanish||3||yes/no|
|14||1.5||Powered by an energy source off the grid||3||yes/no|
|15||3.2, 3.4, 3.1, 4.4||Provide fatigue data for equivalent lifetime||3||years|
|16||5.1, 5.2||Same or increased dosage of UV as baseline design||9||mJ/cm^2|
|17||5.4, 5.3, 5.2||Can remove sediment from water||3||microns (filter size)|
|18||5.5||point-of use device||9||yes/no|
|19||5.6||materials not reactive with UV light||9||yes/no|
|20||1.4||Will be presentable as a "complete package" with manufacturing instructions, costs, required tooling, and other information all included||3||yes/no|
Needs Related to the Metrics Using a Matrix
The engineering specifications directly relate to the customer needs as outlined previously. The following matrix illustrates this relationship.
|Needs and Metrics||Metric 1||Metric 2||Metric 3||Metric 4||Metric 5||Metric 6||Metric 7||Metric 8||Metric 9||Metric 10||Metric 11||Metric 12||Metric 13||Metric 14||Metric 15||Metric 16||Metric 17||Metric 18||Metric 19||Metric 20|
Competitive Benchmarking Information
Relatively few Sr. design projects start from a clean sheet of paper. In most cases, there are some baseline solutions or products that could meet the vast majority of the customer's needs.
- Benchmark 1
- This design has been developed and tested at UC Berkeley.
- The disinfection device consisted of a 65-cm long, 4-in diameter PVC pipe with the lower three quarters lined with stainless steel and the remaining with aluminum foil. Below the aluminum foil a 15-W germicidal bulb (11078, General Electric, Louisville, KY) was suspended from two bulb holders. Each end of the tube was sealed with Vaseline and unlined PVC end caps. On one side a half-inch copper elbow inserted through the top of the tube provided the inlet. On the opposite end cap a 1-in PVC elbow was inserted as the outlet at a height such that the water depth without flow would be 4 cm. A small Plexiglas window, which blocks UV light, was inserted on the top to indicate when the light was on. Prior to inserting and securing the stainless steel liner, a hole was cut into the bottom of the PVC pipe to serve as a leak detector. If during operation the seal between the PVC and stainless steel liner was broken, water would flow below the liner and exit through this hole alerting the user that water may be unsafe to drink.
- Benchmark 2
- DLR Commercial / Residential UV Water Purifier Available through American Air & Water; manufactured by WEDECO Ultraviolet Technologies
- The DLR ultraviolet (UV) water purifiers are capable of treating small to mid size water flow projects designed for commercial and residential (whole house - point-of-entry & drinking water point-of-use) applications. The Model A UV water purifier is effective and economical. The system is designed to deliver a dose greater than 40 mJ/cm^2 in accordance with public health recommendations and pending regulations, so the water will always be safely and effectively disinfected! The operating temperature of the UV water purifiers and the inlet temperature of the water are from 33 deg F to 100 deg F. The economical DLR A UV water purifier comes complete with LED power and lamp out indicators and an audible alarm.
- With the DLR UV water purifiers, American Air & Water presents a complete line of point of entry ultraviolet water purifiers for residential and commercial water disinfection applications. The DLR Series ultraviolet water purification systems have been designed by WEDECO with the customer in mind, merging the highest quality construction with innovative features for maximum customer satisfaction.
- OTHER FEATURES
- Glo-Cap and Saf-T-Cap UV Lamp Connection System
- The combination Glo-Cap and Saf-T-Cap UV lamp connection system is both stylish and safe. The Glo-Cap provides an attractive blue glow (blue light only- no UV escapes the unit) in a darkened room or at night, providing at a glance assurance to the homeowner that the UV water purifier is working away to protect their family from microorganisms. Additionally, the Saf-T-Cap UV lamp connection mechanism provides convenient access for lamp replacement (a simple twist unlocks the cap) while automatically disconnecting the UV lamp upon cap removal. This feature prevents homeowners (and their children) from ever removing an operating UV lamp from the disinfection chamber. While no UV water purifier should be sold without this safety feature, there are many products on the market that do not provide this basic requirement.
- UV Water Purifier Automatic Operational Status & Alarm Indication
- All DLR UV Water Purifiers provide positive indication that the UV unit is powered and operating, and audible and visual alarms in the case of a UV lamp failure.
- Benchmark 3
- Trojan UVMax whole house ultraviolet (UV) water purifier system, Model C
- This is a very similar unit to the one given as Benchmark 2. It is a household point-of-use device intended for an average sized home (approximately 3 bedroom, 2 bath). Following is some information from the manufacturer:
- The Trojan UVMax Models C and D are our most popular models for residential use. The Model C is the most economical unit and comes with a fair range of popular and important features and options. In fact, it boasts most of the features found in competitors' more expensive models. The Model D has several additional features and capabilities including the ability to add a solenoid emergency shut-off kit which offers added protection in the event of a power failure or lamp failure. Which whole house Trojan UVMax ultraviolet (UV) purifier is best for your home is determined largely by the level of contamination and the maximum flow rate required in your home. Pre-filtration (down to 5 micron level) to remove sediment and other general contaminants is required to ensure that an adequate dose of ultraviolet light reaches the microorganisms and to ensure complete disinfection. Optional in-line flow restrictors, emergency solenoid shut-off valves, and UPS back-up power supplies can be added to your system for added protection and functionality.
- The Trojan UVMax Model C is the smallest Trojan UVMax unit designed for whole-house water sterilization. It is well suited to the average rural home which obtains its water supply from a well, lake, or stream, where flow rates will not generally exceed 7.5 to 8 gallons per minute (an average shower flows at about 2 GPM). The Trojan UVMax Model C features a wide range of features found in most competitors' most expensive models, including an audible and visual lamp failure alarm. All-in-all, the Trojan UVMax Model C is an excellent choice for economical whole-house water sterilization to kill bacteria, viruses, and waterborne cysts like cryptosporidium and giardia.
Trojan UVMax water purifiers feature the following benefits:
- 1. High Output UV Lamps
- The UV light is generated from a low-pressure, high-output lamp that provides a higher intensity of UV light making it possible to treat a given volume of water with smaller, more efficient units.
- 2. Unique Water Chamber Design
- Trojan's unique water chamber optimizes hydraulic performance and increases disinfection efficiency. Designed by computer simulation and validated by bioassay testing, the water chamber maximizes exposure to the penetrating light. Trojan models to treat flow rates up to about 25 gallons per minute (2.8 to 151 liters per minute / based on a minimum dosage of 30 mJ/cm^2) are available.
- 3. New Power Supply Technology
- Electronic advances in Trojan's power supply offer flexibility over a broad range of voltage supplies (90-265v). In addition, it can withstand fluctuations in voltage that most power supplies are unable to tolerate while maintaining lamp intensity to ensure continuous disinfection. Most models - see specifications for details.
- 4. Worry Free Operation
- To help remind you when to replace the lamp (it is important to do it once every year), Trojan has incorporated visual and audio signals. And, at any time the display will tell you how many months the lamp has been in use. Should your lamp ever fail, your system will automatically sound an alarm.
Use this table below to compare how pre-existing solutions should compare against the design team's efforts.
Competitive Benchmarking Matrix Metric No. Need Nos. Metric Importance Units Benchmark 1 Value Benchmark 2 Value Benchmark 3 Value 1 1.1, 1.2 Flow restricted to certain rate 1 gpm (gal/min) no flow restrictor 10 (optional additional flow restrictor) 6.5 (optional additional flow restrictor) 2 1.1, 1.2 Accepts flow from plumbing source 3 yes/no yes yes yes 3 1.1 Can accept a batch of water 3 yes/no yes no no 4 1.8 People will be able to build and install it with only provided instructions 9 test non-technical people's ability to build and install yes no no 5 1.7, 4.1, 4.3 People will be able to use it with only provided instructions 9 test non-technical people's ability to use and repair/troubleshoot yes yes yes 6 2.1, 2.2 Initial cost (of materials and construction) is low 9 US Dollars $41 $330 $410 7 2.1, 4.3 Maintenance cost is low 9 US Dollars/year $12 ? ? 8 4.3, 2.2, 6.1 Locally-obtained materials 3 % of materials almost 100% ? ? 9 3.1 Lasts for a long time 3 years field tested for approx. 5 years One-year warrantee on the UV Water Purifier Ten-year warrantee on UV Disinfection Chamber Two-year warrantee on Electrical Parts One-year warrantee on Ultraviolet Lamp (UV Bulb) ? 10 6.3 Low environmental impacts in production and use 3 LCA Method TBD TBD TBD TBD 11 6.2, 6.3, 4.2 Recyclable and reusable parts 1 % of parts ? ? ? 12 3.3, 1.2 Can accept water at certain flow rate before spilling over 1 gpm 5 (for UV effectiveness) 10 6.5 13 1.3, 1.6 Instructions in English and Spanish 3 yes/no ? ? ? 14 1.5 Powered by an energy source off the grid 3 yes/no no no no 15 3.2, 3.4, 3.1, 4.4 Provide fatigue data for equivalent lifetime 3 years ? ? ? 16 5.1, 5.2 Same or increased dosage of UV as baseline design 9 mJ/cm^2 98.1 (tests for water with 98% transmittance) 40 (for given flow rate) 40 (for given flow rate) 17 5.4, 5.3, 5.2 Can remove sediment from water 3 microns (filter size) no, but recommended filtration to 5 micron optional filtration system optional additional pre-filtration to 5 micron 18 5.5 point-of use device 9 yes/no yes yes yes 19 5.6 materials not reactive with UV light 9 yes/no yes yes yes 20 1.4 Will be presentable as a "complete package" with manufacturing instructions, costs, required tooling, and other information all included 3 yes/no no no no
Ideal and Marginally Acceptable Target Values
Given the customer needs, awareness of the marketplace, and resource limitations of the current project, assign preliminary engineering specifications on each of the metrics. In addition to setting the nominal or target value or each specification, provide guidance to the team on the ideal value or direction that the team should strive for, once the nominal target values have been realized.
List of Metrics Metric No. Need Nos. Metric Importance Units Marginal value Ideal Value 1 1.1, 1.2 Flow restricted to certain rate 1 gpm (gal/min) 10 7 2 1.1, 1.2 Accepts flow from plumbing source 3 yes/no yes yes 3 1.1 Can accept a batch of water 3 yes/no yes yes 4 1.8 People will be able to build and install it with only provided instructions 9 test non-technical people's ability to build and install yes yes 5 1.7, 4.1, 4.3 People will be able to use it with only provided instructions 9 test non-technical people's ability to use and repair/troubleshoot yes yes 6 2.1, 2.2 Initial cost (of materials and construction) is low 9 US Dollars $41 $30 7 2.1, 4.3 Maintenance cost is low 9 US Dollars/year $12 $10 8 4.3, 2.2, 6.1 Locally-obtained materials 3 % of materials 70% 100% 9 3.1 Lasts for a long time 3 years 3 10 10 6.3 Low environmental impacts in production and use 3 LCA Method TBD TBD TBD 11 6.2, 6.3, 4.2 Recyclable and reusable parts 1 % of parts 20% 50% 12 3.3, 1.2 Can accept water at certain flow rate before spilling over 1 gpm 5 7 13 1.3, 1.6 Instructions in English and Spanish 3 yes/no yes yes 14 1.5 Powered by an energy source off the grid 3 yes/no no yes 15 3.2, 3.4, 3.1, 4.4 Provide fatigue data for equivalent lifetime 3 years 16 5.1, 5.2 Same or increased dosage of UV as baseline design 9 mJ/cm^2 40 > 40 17 5.4, 5.3, 5.2 Can remove sediment from water 3 microns (filter size) 20 5 18 5.5 point-of use device 9 yes/no yes yes 19 5.6 materials not reactive with UV light 9 yes/no yes yes 20 1.4 3 yes/no yes yes
- Human safety takes precedence over all other design objectives.
- The device shall be safe to operate with a power source in close proximity to water.
- The device should not produce any by-products that are harmful for human consumption.
- The device shall not expose the user to harmful amounts of UV.
- The device should be robust to damage by inexperienced operators.
Detailed Course Deliverables
Note that this level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.
See Senior Design I Course Deliverables for detail.
- The following tasks should be completed by the end of SD1:
- Build the baseline current design, characterize
the system, and list improvements based on:
- Ease of Manufacture
- Environmental Impact (Life Cycle Assessment)
- Design of a new water disinfection system using Design for Manufacture and Design for Environment principles.
- Material Selection
- Order any necessary parts with long lead times.
- Develop a comprehensive test plan.
- Develop a plan for product manufacture / distribution to targeted areas.
- The following tasks should be completed by the end of SD2:
- Deliver a working prototype of a UV water disinfection system.
- Fully characterize the prototype in the same manner as the baseline system.
- Test the system for fatigue, ease of use, and pathogen removal.
- Develop instructions for assembly and use.
Preliminary Work Breakdown
This project will closely follow the three week project workshop schedule presented in SD1. See the Course Calender for Details.
In addition, the following tasks should be completed ASAP:
- Go over the information on the edge website, from the Design Project Management PRP, and in the Preliminary Information binder.
- Learn about UV disinfection technology.
- Build the baseline design.
- Meet with the Solar Water Disinfection team and compare information.
Person Week 0->1 Tasks
(8 Dec 06)
Week 1->2 Tasks
(15 Dec 06)
Week 2->3 Tasks
(22 Dec 06)
ME Student 1 Learn about general sustainability concepts and UN Millenium Goals; learn about the basic UV water disinfection process; refine customer needs; build current design using instructions and materials as provided. Deliverable: prioritized customer needs list. Identify some design weaknesses (leaking parts, etc); contact organizations who have done field studies to determine possible improvements; research fatigue testing options, locations for testing, and needs. Develop specifications regarding product lifetime. Develop detailed fatigue test plan ME Student 2 Learn about general sustainability concepts and UN Millenium Goals; learn about the basic UV water disinfection process; refine customer needs; build current design using instructions and materials as provided. Deliverable: prioritized customer needs list. Research material interaction with UV radiation; research availability of the materials utilized in the current design. Develop specifications regarding product materials. Identify the key materials that could/should be modified; if needed, develop test plan for other material testing ME Student 3 Learn about general sustainability concepts and UN Millenium Goals; learn about the basic UV water disinfection process; refine customer needs; build current design using instructions and materials as provided. Deliverable: prioritized customer needs list. Research health regulations for UV disinfection and general potable water quality that apply to the entire world as well as specific countries; research the types of pathogens that are likely present in the water and the appropriate safe levels for consumtion. Develop specifications regarding water quality. Develop a microbiological test plan: how, where, when, and who (work with members of SODIS team) ME Student 4 Fluids analysis of current design: determine flow rate (maximum and minimum) and UV dosage. Develop specifications regarding water flow. Determine ideal flow rate and identify mechanisms by which this may be controlled EE Student 1 Determine the amount of power needed to run the system; research power options; benchmark at least 3 systems with appropriate alternative power. Develop specifications regarding power sources. Determine cost and availability of different power options ISE Student 1 Determine a method by which to measure environmental impact; benchmark at least 4 systems that are either commercially available or have been otherwise developed. Develop specifications regarding product environmental impact and cost. Characterize current system based on environmental impact and cost; propose areas for improvement ISE Student 2 Research dissemination and manufacturing options; contact organizations (UN, etc.) regarding distribution to other areas of the world; research manufacturing options in target countries. Develop specifications regarding product manufacturability and dissemination. Characterize current system based on manufacturability and propose ideas for improvement; determine best method of product disseminiation to underdeveloped countries
Grading and Assessment Scheme
Grading of students in this project will be fully consistent with grading policies established for the SD1 and SD2 courses. The following level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.
- Level D:
- The student team will build and fully characterize the system as currently designed. The student team will deliver a working unit prototype capable of disinfecting water.
- Level C:
- The student team will deliver all elements of Level D PLUS: The UV-tube water disinfection device prototype will meet all customer specifications.
- Level B:
- The student team will deliver all elements of Level D and C PLUS: The prototype will show quantitative improvements over the current design, specifically in the areas of cost and manufacturability.
- Level A:
- The student team will deliver all elements of Level D, C, and B PLUS: the prototype will have alternate sources of power available, and will show improvement in environmental impacts.
Faculty Item Source Description Available Dr. Thorn ISE Customer/Faculty Consultant Yes Dr. Carrano ISE Customer/Faculty Consultant Yes Dr. Stevens ME Technical Consultant Yes Other People / Organizations Item Source Description Available Partners in Venezuela Regional Information / Manufacturing and Materials Consultant Sarah Brownell Developer of Previous Designs Environment Item Source Description Available ISE Graduate P3 Lab IE 09-1150 Work Space/Storage/Computer access Yes ME Shop ME 09-2360 Parts Fabrication Yes Equipment Item Source Description Available Fatigue Equipment Fatigue Testing Biological Labs Microbial Testing
The team members will be expected to procure all materials needed for the project.