P07421: Sustainable Technologies for the RIT Campus - Phase I
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Energy Audit Information

Table of Contents

Overview

An energy audit was designed which would be used to determine power loads of RIT campus buildings and the development of processes which would be able to reduce the power loads created in a single campus building. By reducing the power loads of a campus building the team's goal of reducing unnecessary energy waste could be achieved and would in tandem create a net cost savings for the RIT campus.

Background

An energy audit is an indepth analysis of a building's loads and the processes which draw the energy within the building. By knowing which processes draw large amounts of power an energy saving plan can be developed and implemented which could in turn reduce the energy needs of the building. The goal of an energy audit is to find unnecessary power draw and to eliminate it, thus saving money in terms of energy cost. Any processes which are developed then can be instituted across several buildings in order to create an even larger net cost savings.

In the beginning stages of the development of the energy audit for the RIT buildings a benchmarking of similar institutions which have instituted energy audits took place. The graph which follows highlights the results of that search, and shows how an energy audit is an effective way to eliminate excessive energy costs:

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As shown from the chart above it is cleary seen that the engergy audit is an effective tool in cost and energy savings. SUNY Buffalo has reduced its usage by 6,747 MWh per year and Hardvard total enegry consumption has dropped by 15% annualy.

Proposed Solution

The team will develop a step by step building energy process. This process map will be completed in Senior Design 1 and will take the form of a checklist. This "user-friendly" checklist will be developed with a non-technical user in mind, allowing others to use the basic format of the audit across a wide range of buildings (and not soley those which we are working directly on). This will allow a broader range to the project than just the single building which is selected.

Senior Design 2 will consist of conducting the actual energy audit upon the selected building. Based upon the energy audit a cost-effective plan will be developed which will help to alleviate unnecessary energy wastes which were found during the audit.

Core Team Members

Benefits

An energy audit is a way for RIT to examine its building loads and institute processes which will help to curb unnecessary energy waste. The audit will create immediate financial benefits in the way of cost savings, an successful processes could be instituted campus-wide in order to create an even larger cost savings.

Supplementary Files

Building Profiles This spreadsheet obtained from RIT's Facilities Management details the building loads of all buildings on the RIT campus. The team was able to effectively use this information to determine which building to isolate in order to perform a building energy audit.
Concept Generation A detailed documnetation of the development of the energy audit process. The file details four concepts which were developed: a precise building load calculation, a computer lab and lighting audit, a residentail apartment energy audit and an equipment efficiency audit which would concern compliancy and efficiency of a buildings HVAC system.
Energy Audit Benchmark Brief notes on several other campuses and energy audits conducted as well as their net energy savings as well as their net cost savings from conducting the audit.
Energy Audit Selection The energy audit screening matrix which was used to determine which of the concepts developed should be pursued. Based upon the results of this matrix it was determined that both a building load calculation as well as a computer lab and lighting audit would be the most advantageous concepts to continue to pursue.
Energy Audit A Microsoft Visio file which contains a flow chart which diagrams the basic process flow of completing an energy audit. Although a higher-level diagram, it roughly outlines the path the team would take while conducting their energy audit.
Flow Chart on Energy A Microsoft Word file which is the same as the file above, but was imported into Microsoft Word for better compatibility across a broader range of computers.
Energy Audit packet The Packet of information that was presented at the end of Senior Design 1

Terminology

Building Envelope
A building envelope includes all components of a building that enclose conditioned space. Building envelope components separate conditioned spaces from unconditioned spaces or from outside air. For example, walls and doors between an unheated garage and a living area are part of the building envelope; walls separating an unheated garage from the outside are not. Although floors of conditioned basements and conditioned crawlspaces are technically part of the building envelope, the code does not specify insulation requirements for these components.
Energy Efficient Ratio (EER)
The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions. When consistent units are used, this ratio becomes equal to the coefficient of performance.
Exfiltration
Uncontrolled outward air leakage from inside a building including leakage through cracks and interstices around windows and doors and through any other exterior partition or penetration.
Fenestration
All areas (including the frames) in the building envelope that let in light, including windows, plastic panels, clerestories, skylights, glass doors that are more than one-half glass, and glass block walls. A skylight is a fenestration surface having a slope of less than 60 degrees from the horizontal plane. Other fenestration, even if mounted on the roof of a building is considered vertical fenestration.
Glazing
Any translucent or transparent material in exterior openings of buildings, including windows, skylights, sliding doors, the glass area of opaque doors, and glass block.
Infiltration
The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both
Net Wall Area
The net wall area includes the opaque wall area of all above grade walls enclosing conditioned spaces, the opaque area of conditioned basement walls less than 50% below grade (including the below-grade portions), and peripheral edges of floors. The net wall area does not include windows, doors, or other such openings, as they are treated separately.
R value
the insulating value, which is the inverse of the U factor. The lower the U factor, the greater a window's resistance to heat flow and the better its insulating value.
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
measures how well a window blocks heat from sunlight. The SHGC is the fraction of the heat from the sun that enters through a window. SHGC is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The lower a window's SHGC, the less solar heat it transmits.
U-factor
measures how well a product prevents heat from escaping. The rate of heat loss is indicated in terms of the U-factor of a window assembly.
Zone
A space or group of spaces within a building with any combination of heating, cooling, or lighting requirements sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device.