P07521: UAV Remote Sensing Imaging System
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PRP

Table of Contents

Administrative Information

Project Name
Bi-Directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) Imaging System
Project Number
P07521
Project Family
P07500 Imaging Systems
Track
Printing and Imaging Systems Track
Start Term
2006-2
End Term
2006-3
Faculty Guide
Dr. Marcos Esterman
Faculty Consultant
Dr. Agamemnon Crassidis
Graduate Teaching Assistant
Jason Faulring
Primary Customer
Dr. Carl Salvaggio (CIS)
Secondary Customers
n/a
Customer contact information

ph: (585)-475-6380

e-mail: cnspci@rit.edu

Office: Building 76:3136

Project Overview

The mission of this student team is to develop a fully autonomous imaging platform for deployment on a range of vehicles, capable of imaging across a complete hemispherical field of view to measure a target's BRDF. Initial deployment vehicles include full-scale aircraft and ground based vehicles, while future vehicle platforms may include lighter-than-air vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles. The module should be compatible with the mounting constraints typical of a "pico-satellite." The team must provide complete documentation of the analysis, design, manufacturing, fabrication, test, and evaluation of this platform to a level of detail that a subsequent team can build upon their work with no more than one week of background research.

Staffing Requirements

Staffing
Team Member Discipline Role / Skills email address
Dr. Marcos Esterman ISE Faculty Guide, Will work closely with the team on an on-going basis to facilitate success. mxeeie@rit.edu
William Casolara ME Team Leader wzc4066@rit.edu
Matthew Harris ME Chief Engineer mjh3810@rit.edu
Robert Jaromin EE Object Oriented Programming (C, C++, PHP, Labview) rmj6311@rit.edu
Kathryn Berens ME GD&T, Mechanical Design, Manufacturing and Machining kjb7503@rit.edu
Ross Strebig ME Analog and Digital Design, PCB Layout rns5266@rit.edu
Richard Andol ME Mechanical Design, Pro-E CAD, GD&T, Manufacturing rpa7904@rit.edu

Continuation, Platform, or Building Block Project Information

The mission of the Bi-Directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) Remote Sensing Imaging System project is to develop a platform for use on many different vehicles, including ground vehicles, mid-size Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), full size aircraft, and spacecraft, to measure a target's BRDF. The project should use an engineering design process to develop modules and subsystems that can be integrated by subsequent senior design teams. This project, P07521, serves as the foundation or starting point for further development in the area by future senior design projects.

The mission of the student team contributing to this track is to develop or enhance a particular subsystem for a BRDF imaging system platform, and provide complete documentation of the analysis, design, manufacturing, fabrication, test, and evaluation of each subsystem to a level of detail that a subsequent team can build upon their work with no more than one week of background research.

This roadmap will be initiated during the Fall Quarter, 2006-1. Additionally, this project have significant overlap with projects from the Printing and Imaging Systems Track (P07500), and the Unmanned Air Vehicle Platform (UAV) Family of Projects (P08140).

This is a project within the Printing and Imaging System Track, to develop a BRDF Imaging System Platform. A critical element of the track is to develop an infra-structure to support the data-aquisition and GPS tracking needs of the platform under development. To aid with this, the team will have access to the end product produded by the UAV design team (P07???), a camera and PC board capable of image capture and data storage.

A number of other projects are intimately related to this project, as summarized in the list below.

Related Project Title Start Term End Term
P08140 Modular, Open Architecture Unmanned Air Vehicle Platform (UAV) Family of Projects 2007-1 2007-3
P07104 METEOR RITSAT1 Satellite 2006-1 2006-3
P07105 METEOR Launch Vehicle 2006-2 2006-3
P07302 Systems and Controls: Motor Control Subsystem 2006-1 2006-2
P07303 Systems and Controls: Wireless Communications 2006-2 2006-3

Principle Sponsor or Sponsoring Organization

Support for this project is generously provided by the Center for Imaging Science.

Support for this project is generously provided by the Center for Imaging Science.

This project is supported by a grant from the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science to the mechanical engineering department at RIT. The Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science at RIT is a highly interdisciplinary University Research and Education Center, dedicated to pushing the frontiers of imaging in all its forms and uses. Through education leading to a BS, Masters, or PhD in the interdisciplinary field of Imaging Science, the CIS produces the next generation of educators and researchers who develop and deploy imaging systems to answer fundamental scientific questions, monitor and protect our environment, help keep our nation secure, and aid medical researchers in their quest to conquer disease. The CIS has an interest in this project field from a research and development aspect, as little is known about BRDF in the environment and there is currently no mechanism to measure it.

Detailed Project Description

Customer Interview

To view a transcript of the interview with Dr. Salvaggio, please follow the link: Customer Interview

Customer Needs

The mission of this project is to develop a small scale Chassis Dyno appopriate for use with the 10kg and 100kg payload robotic platforms currently being developed under this project track. Additionally, it is desireable for this Chassis Dyno to be able to characterize the performance of any robot used by high school teams competing in the RIT-hosted Finger Lakes Regional FIRST robotics competition each spring. The Chassis Dyno should be scalable (to 1kg and 1,000kg payload variants), modular in design, open architecture, open source, and fully instrumented for use in a variety of education, research & development, and outreach applications within and beyond the RIT KGCOE.

The primary customer, Dr. Edward Hensel, representing the mechanical engineering department of RIT, has expressed his objectives for the design project using an Objective Tree tool, as outlined in the following section.

Voice of the Customer, Objective Tree

These objectives should be addressed across a series of projects related to this track. Some individual projects within the track may focus on various areas of these objectives, but all student teams are encouraged to keep the "big picture" in mind, so that their individual project contributions can be more readily integrated with the larger system view.

  1. Constraint Objectives
    • Regulatory Constraints
      • C.1 The design shall comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. Measure of Effectiveness: Every team shall identify at least one federal, state, or local law or regulation that may have an impact on the system design. The team shall demonstrate compliance with said regulations. Particular attention shall be paid to OSHA requirements, and safety codes and standards related to rotating equipment.
      • C.2 The design shall comply with all applicable RIT Policies and Procedures. Measure of Effectiveness: The team shall offer their design for review by the RIT Campus Safety office, and shall rigorously follow RIT procedures associated with purchasing and safety.
      • C.3 Wherever practical, the design should follow industry standard codes and standards. Safety codes shall be treated as design requirements. Industry standards should be used wherever practical. Measure of Effectiveness: The team shall identify at least one mechanical and at least one electrical standard complied with during the design process.
    • Academic Constraints
      • C.10 The team shall prepare a technical report, including a set of design drawings and bill of materials supported by engineering analysis.
      • C.11 The team shall deliver all hardware and software, and demonstrate all hardware and software through experimental test and evaluation data.
    • Safety Constraints
      • C.20 Particular attention shall be paid to rotating equipment safety concerns and electrical safety concerns.
      • C.21 Each dyno shall have a fail-safe "kill switch".
      • C.22 Human safety takes precedence over all other design objectives.
      • C.23 Building and facilities safety takes precedence over dyno equipment damage.
      • C.24 The dyno should be robust to damage by inexperienced operators.
  2. Resource Objectives
    • People Resource
      • R.0 The team shall be comprised of 4 EE and 2 ME students.
    • Equipment Resource
      • R.10 The team members should fabricate most custom components on campus, and the design should consider in-house manufacturing resources.
    • Time Resource
      • R.20 Each student team member should be expected to work a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 16 hours per week on the project. Each student should ideally spend an average of 12 hours per week on the project. The scope of the project has been designed with these limits in mind.
      • R.21 The chassis dyno must be demonstrable at the Spring 2006 Finger Lakes FIRST Regional Robotics Compeition, hosted at the Gordon Field House over Spring break.
  3. Economic Objectives
    • Materials Costs
      • R.30 The total development budget for the roadmap / track is not anticipated to exceed $15,000 during AY06-07 and 07-08 for first article prototypes of each project. The distribution of this amount between projects in the track is negotiable.
      • R.31 The cost to manufacture subsequent copies of a dyno should decrease with increasing volume.
      • R.33 The cost to manufacture subsequent copies of a dyno should decrease with decreasing levels of instrumentation, but shall remain capable of being retro-fitted with instrumentation after initial manufacturing.
      • R.34 The cost to manufacture subsequent copies of a dyno should be borne by the team, faculty member, research project, company, or department desiring to use the item for their research and development work.
    • Labor Costs
      • R.40 The design team is not expected to account for the nominal labor costs of RIT shop personnel as long as the time commitment does not greatly exceed that of other typical SD projects.
      • R.41 The design team is not expected to account for the nominal labor costs of TA's, Faculty, or other staff assigned to assist and guide then team, as long as the time commitment does not greatly exceed that of other typical SD projects.
    • Amortization Costs
      • R.50 The design team is not expected to recover the investment costs associated with the platform development.
  4. Scope Objectives
    • S.1 The dyno(s) shall be applicable to 10 kg and 100kg robotic platforms.
    • S.2 The dyno(s) shall be scalable down to a 1 kg payload variants.
    • S.3 The dyno(s) shall be scalable down up to a 1,000 kg payload variants.
    • S.3 The dyno(s) shall be open architecture (All COTS components must be available from multiple vendors)
    • S.4 The dyno(s) shall be open source (All drawings, programs, documentation, data, etc. must be open source published in standard formats)
    • S.5 The dyno(s) shall be manufacturable in lots as small as one and as large as 10.
    • S.6 The dyno(s) shall NOT be designed assuming that it is targeted for a commercial product.
    • S.7 The dyno design shall be available for use and adoption by other commercially oriented SD teams.
  5. Technology Objectives
    • T.1 The 10 Kg and 100 kg robotic platform motor modules shall be designed first.
    • T.2 The 1 and 1,000 Kg robotic platform motor modules shall be designed second.
    • T.3 The results of this dyno development should increase the reputation and visibility of the RIT SD program and our robotics technology "skill level" on a national basis.
    • T.4 The preferred motion control technology is control by wire.
    • T.5 The preferred energy source is 110 VAC power.
    • T.6 The dyno shall be relocatable by two people, and easily transported through single-width doorways, etc.

Voice of the Engineer, Function Tree

The student members of the team are asked to translate the customer requirements into engineering design specifications. The customer wishes for the student team to develop a complete "Voice of the Engineer" document, and prepare a House of Quality which demonstrates how each customer objective has been effectively mapped to one or more engineering specifications.

The student team may then demonstrate that they have satisfied the customer objectives through measurement and demonstration of satisfying each engineering performance specification. The team should meet with the customer by the mid-point of SD1 to review the house of quality and confirm that the house of quality and engineering specifications adequately capture the customer's intent as expressed by the objective tree.

Background Information Provided by the Customer

Useful Web Resources

You may find it helpful to review these web resources to get comfortable with motor characterization and dynamometry.

Check out this Wikipedia Article for some general background information about dynamometry.

Land and Sea Corporation Dynamometers Commercially available dynos are presented here.

Presentation on Robot Motor Selection This slide show presents a nice overview of how to interpret a DC motor response curve. Using a dynamometer, your team will be able to create motor response curves similar to these, for other people to interpret and use.

Getting the Most from Motors powerpoint slide show and tutorial from US FIRST.

Reliance Electric Motor Information Center

Initial Concepts to Consider
  1. EE Electric Machines DC Motor Dynamometer (previously given to EET by EE)
  2. Team Designed and built DC Motor Dyno
  3. Team Designed and built Motor Module Dyno
  4. Team Designed and built wheel-drive chassis dyno
  5. Team Designed and built treadmill type chassis dyno

Customer Deliverables

Design, build, and fully characterized working prototypes of 4 idler modules and 3 powered motor modules. See the "Detailed Course Deliverables" section for more specifics.

Customer and Sponsor Involvement

The team will be expected to carry out the vast majority of their interactions with the Team Guide (Dr. Walter), and the teaching assistant (Jeff Webb). Dr. Hensel (The sponsor and customer) will be available for a series of meetings during the course of the project. Dr. Hensel will meet with a group of teams during the beginning of SD1 to lay out common goals, objectives, and philosophies for the sequence of projects being sponsored by the Gleason Foundation gift to the ME Department. It is anticipated that Dr. Hensel will meet with the team (or multiple related teams) for 2 hour meetings approximately 4 times during senior design 1, and twice during senior design 2. Dr. Hensel will participate with team communications electronically, through the web site as well.

Regulatory Requirements

Project Budget and Special Procurement Processes

The ME Department has allocated $15,000 to this project track for AY05-06 and AY06-07. While there is no pre-defined limit for each project within the track, each team in the track must demonstrate that their expenditures are in-line to satisfy both the requirements of the individual project, as well as to set the stage towards completion of the overall objectives of the track.

Each team will be required to keep track of all expenses incurred with their project, and to communicate with members of other teams in the track, to insure that the overall track budget as well as the individual project budgets are being followed.

Purchases for this track will be run through the mechanical engineering procurement system. Dave Hathaway (Operations Manager) for the ME department will be point of contact for most purchases associate with this project and this track. It is recommended that each team appoint one person to act as the purchasing agent for the team, and that all interactions between the team and Dave go through the single purchasing agent. The team is responsible for providing all receipts, copies of invoices, shipping documents, and proper use of tax exempt forms, etc.

Intellectual Property Considerations

All work to be completed by students in this track is expected to be released to the public domain. Students, Faculty, Staff, and other participants in the project will be expected to release rights to their designs, documents, drawings, etc., to the public domain, so that others may freely build upon the results and findings without constraint.

Students, Faculty, and Staff associated with the project are encouraged to publish findings, data, and results openly.

Engineering Specifications

Motor Module Specifications
10kg Robot Specifications

The motor modules must be able to meet the following requirements when used together on a platform:

Figure 1: Prototype Configuration Requirements

Figure 1: Prototype Configuration Requirements

Table 1: Tradeoff Assessment
Model Size (m) Tare Weight (kg) Payload Capacity (kg) Speed (m/s) Turning Radius (m) Remote Range (m)
R10 0.30 x 0.15 x 0.30 9 10 2.25 0.30 30

Safety Constraints

Detailed Course Deliverables

Note that this level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.

See Senior Design I Course Deliverables for detail.

The following tasks should be completed by the end of SD1:
The following tasks should be completed by the end of SD2:

Preliminary Work Breakdown

The following roles are not necessarily to be followed by the team. It is merely to justify the number of students from each discipline. The student team is expected to develop their own work breakdown structure, consistent with the general work outline presented in the workshop series at the beginning of SD1. However, the customer requests a level of detail NO GREATER than weekly tasks to be completed by each student team member for the benefit of the other team members. The customer DOES NOT request any level of detail finer than one-week intervals, but will assist the team members if they wish to develop a finer level of detail to support their own efforts.

ME:
  1. Powertrain (i.e. motor, transmission, etc.).
  2. Yoke and any other necessary hardware not previously mentioned.
EE:
  1. Microprocessor hardware and integration, sensing, and overall architecture.
  2. Software.
  3. Power electronics (i.e. motor controller, etc.).
  4. Power (i.e. batteries, AC/DC converters, etc.).

Grading and Assessment Scheme

Grading of students in this project will be fully consistent with grading policies established for the SD1 and SD2 courses. The following level describes an absolute level of expectation for the design itself, and for the hardware. However, the student team must also meet all requirements related to analysis, documentation, presentations, web sites, and posters, etc. that are implicit to all projects.

Level D:
The student team will build and fully characterize an imaging system built to pico-satellite mounting specifications capable of capturing an image and storing it on a flash card.
Level C:
The student team will deliver all elements of Level D PLUS: The imaging platform will take input from a navigational system and change the orientation of the camera as the vehicle moves. The camera should have the capacity to image in a complete hemishperical field of view.
Level B:
The student team will deliver all elements of Level D and C PLUS: The imaging platform will take input from a navigation system while logging GPS coordinates at the location of image capture. It will also operate off of a self-contained power source.
Level A:
The student team will deliver all elements of Level D, C, and B PLUS: The imaging platform will be resistant to shock, water damage, high temperature, and vibrational misalignment. Self-contained power will last for the duration of the UAV flight and be easily accessible by the user. The stored data will also be easily accessible by the user.

Three-Week SDI Schedule

This project will closely follow the three week project workshop schedule presented in SD1. See the Course Calender for Details.

In addition, the following tasks should be completed ASAP:

  1. Go over the information on the edge website, from the Design Project Management Robotics Platform Roadmap, and in the Preliminary Information binder.
  2. Build the kit provided by the Teaching Assistant.
  3. Test and fully characterize the equipment in the kit.
  4. Compare the results with the other Vehicle Systems Technology Track teams.

Required Resources

Faculty
Item Source Description Available
Prof. Walter ME Faculty Guide/Coordinator/Mentor Yes
Prof. Hensel ME Customer Yes
Prof. Slack EE Technical Consultant Yes
Environment
Item Source Description Available
Robotics Lab ME 09-2230 Work Space/Storage Yes
Sr Design Lab EE 09-3xxx Work Space Yes
ME Shop ME 09-2360 Parts Fabrication Yes
Equipment
Item Source Description Available
DC Motor Dyno EE Electric Machines Lab Characterization Unknown
Power-supply EE Department Used for Testing Unknown
Desktop PC Throughout Programming Yes

The team members will be expected to procure the materials needed for the project, excluding the following:

Materials
Item Source Description Available
Super Droid Robot ATR Teaching Assistant 10kg payload example Yes
IFI Robotics Kit Teaching Assistant 100kg payload example Yes