P08541: Commercialization of Micro-goniophotometer

Project Readiness Packet

Table of Contents

Project 08541

Administrative Information

Project Name
Commercialization Of A Micro-goniophotometer
Project Number
Project Family
Image & Color Science
Printing & Imaging Systems Technology
Start Term
End Term
Faculty Guide
Faculty Consultant
Dr. Marcos Esterman (ISE)
Graduate Teaching Assistant
Primary Customer
Dr. Jonathan Arney *STILL PENDING*
Customer Contact Information
Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science

Customer Information


Team Documents

Scientific Understanding of the Applied Technology

A Micro-Goniophotometer and the Measurement of Print Gloss
Color Properties of Specular Reflections
Interpretation of Gloss Measurements
Analysis of Paper Gloss
Interpretation of the Results of a Micro-Goniophotometer Analysis
Dr. Arney's Homepage
Dr. Salvaggio's Homepage
Dr. Farnand's Homepage
Posters on Gloss

Initial Meetings

Audio MP3 Files of Meetings

Project Advertisement

MS PowerPoint Advertisement

Project Start Point and Concept Introduction

What is Goniophotometry?
This is merely a combination of a gloss measurement + an angle measurement. Measuring both of these properties allows the creation of a more useful metric than standard gloss meters on the market. In creating a data set of gloss levels with a corresponding angular component a far more accurate and descriptive indicator of gloss is created.

Introduction to Gloss and Goniophotometry

The measurement of gloss is essential in a wide variety of industries. Gloss is an optical phenomenon caused when evaluating the appearance of a surface. The evaluation of gloss describes the capacity of a surface to reflect directed light. Goniophotometry is a field that integrates the measurement of gloss from a variety of angles. In doing so, far more information can be obtained about the actual gloss properties of the item. Gloss is often used as a criterion to evaluate the quality of a product, especially in the case of products where the aesthetic appearance is of importance. This includes products such as automotive coatings, furniture coatings, plastics, metals and paper. A visual gloss evaluation includes many subjective sources of error and is not sufficient. Therefore, to be objective, it is necessary to put a measured value on the degree of gloss. A complete evaluation of gloss is dependent on several factors. Since the 1930's, measuring instruments have been used to associate reflection behavior and a defined measurement value under defined conditions. Gloss when perceived by the human eye is a subjective evaluation. However, visually observed differences can not always be measured physically by using, for example, glossmeters.

Current Technological State of Goniophotometry at RIT

The printing and imaging science department at RIT is the primary information source of information, expertise, and experimentation on goniophotometry. The current system is an experimental device that resides in the college of imaging science. The current device requires a substantial amount of experience to operate and interpret. This project is aimed at creating a system that isn't as cumbersome, is easy to operate, and has useful and easy to interpret data output. Scientists and researchers from RIT are researching the field and have various systems in place that can successfully measure gloss with respect to varying angles. The goal of this project is to take the scientific knowledge and lab setting system onto the next stage. Developing a compact system that doesn't require substantial training or a degree in advanced optics to operate is the overall goal of this project. The product should be scaled down and be in as many ways as possible self calibrating, self functional, and provide easy to interpret but robust technical measurements. In addition, the system should provide repeatable output and the overall manufacturing of the system should be fully documented in order for repeat devices to be produced from the teams engineering specifications.

Project Overview

Product Market Description

The current market share for goniophotometers are focused on utilizing the devices to measure the levels of light reflected off of a given object. The purpose of this project is to establish a miniaturization of this system to be used within industries that would have a need for this product. For instance, allowing this object to be affixed to a small-scale unmanned air drone or within a commercialized printer casing. The scaling of this system should produce an object small enough to fit in any of the later mentioned service markets (EX: Size and weight constraints) and still manage to produce all desired functions of a standard goniophotometer; or the needs of that said industrial sector.

Key Business Goals

To not only create a working device that can fulfill the given needs of the industrial sponsor, but to also make the product marketable and a feasible solution across a variety of application markets. This device should be able to accurately perform desired measurements according to specifications.

Primary Market

Currently, the market existing for goniophotometers are focused upon measuring the gloss levels that are produced within printing applications.

Secondary Market

A secondary market could possibly exist in affixing goniophotometers to unmanned aerial drone reconnaissance aircraft in order to accurately describe the drone's physical location relative to ground objects using the aforementioned object's indices of light reflecting off its visible surface.

Additional Market

A final market shows an additional need for the measurement of a variety of surfaces' index gloss level. Measuring these surfaces would allow for a large number of surfaces to be compared and contrasted. To be of use, the unit for this application would have to be portable, battery powered, and isolate the inspection surface.

Assumptions and Constraints

It is assumed that current research from other laboratories and RIT color and imaging science students will be available to better aid the team in creating a marketable micro-goniophotometer. Faculty advisor, Professor Esterman (ISE), will also be available for consult on the devices mathematical properties due to his extensive knowledge of printing technologies through past industry experience.


Current stakeholders include first and foremost the project's industrial sponsor, Perluma, secondly the associated RIT educational departments involved with the creation and involvement with this program, lastly the students putting substantial time and effort into this project should work diligently towards a fulfilling and working apparatus that meets or exceeds the needs of the current industrial sectors.

Current Systems In Use

Portable Gloss Meter

This is an example of a fixed angle gloss measuring device used in industry, Although it can measure gloss, it only does so from one fixed position.

Information Taken From: http://www.paint-test-equipment.co.uk/Gloss%20Meters.htm

Small-scale Goniophotometer


The sample is mounted on the goniometer and rotated around a pivot point through two axes of rotation. This presents the different orientations of the test item towards a detector, mounted at a distance across the room. Through this way the luminous flux and luminous intensity distribution (beam characteristics) of the test item is measured.

Information Taken From: http://www.ferret.com.au/articles/73/0c03fc73.asp

Sphere Measuring Goniophotometer

NPL has developed the use of goniophotometers that mimic integrating spheres, for photometric measurements. Goniophotometric measurements are made using a photometer, mounted on the end of an arm that is free to scan the surface of a notional sphere, with the source mounted at the centre of this sphere. They are primarily used for the measurement of the luminous intensity distribution of lamps and luminares, but it is also possible to determine luminous flux from the directional, SI base unit, of luminous intensity. This is achieved by mapping the illuminance over the surface of a sphere surrounding the source and summing over the total solid angle of 4 PIE steradian.

Information Taken From: http://www.npl.co.uk/optical_radiation/instrumentation/gonio_fac.html


Projected Student Staffing List
Name Discipline Role / Skills
Michael L. Kolis ISE Project Manager: Uses tools from DPM and management classes to ensure proper flow throughout senior design. Serves as a linkage between the various student disciplines to ensure overall coordination and project functionality. Focuses on the overall project scope, serves as a team spokesperson, and handles all necessary formal faculty/sponsor/team relations (Skills: MS Project, Minitab, MS Access, MS Office)
TBD Student EE Electrical Engineer: Uses background to hard wire and construct the functional electrical components of the project (Skills: DC Electric Machines, Theoretical Modeling, A/D and D/A System Design, Sensor Selection and Interfacing)
TBD Student EE Electrical Engineer: Focuses on the linkage with a selected CE student on hardware/software integration. Works on the digital linkage of the applied hardware motors, sensors, and other applied devices (Skills: Labview)
TBD Student CE Computer Engineer: Second limb of the previously mentioned EE/CE team. Primary goal is to use the applied computer code and interface and to link that to the applied hardware. Also serves as a secondary source of hard construction aid of the mechanical device with respect to wiring and circuits.
TBD Student CE Computer Engineer: Must create the overall graphical user interface. Works with the ISE student to ensure robust human to computer device compliance and uses the applied logistics and metrics derived by the imaging professors to display the devices output (Skills: GUI Programming Language)
TBD Student ME Mechanical Engineer: Primary physical design of the device. Uses skills and computer tools to model and design the overall mechanical system to be used in this project. Must rely on information from the EE students about device capability when designing paper feed systems, scan systems, and optical calibration. (Skills: Mechanical Design, Pro-E CAD, GD&T, Manufacturing)
TBD Student ME Mechanical Engineer/Chief Engineer: Serves as an aide to the project manager and ensures the physical aspects of the team's progress are in check. Secondary role is to supervise the development of the physical application system designed by the additional ME student. Finally, ensures linkage between the ISE/CE/ME/EE students to ensure each part is functioning accordingly and fully in accordance with components designed by other team members
TBD Student ISE Industrial Engineer: *Desire expressed towards a BS/MS applied Statistics focus student. Essential in working with the imaging science professors in taking science into physical engineering metrics. Must also work with the CE and EE team to ensure the proper aspects of the gloss are being measured and the proper components are displayed to the device's user.

Project Budget and Special Procurement Processes

It is projected that $10,000 will be alloted to this project in order to see it through to completion. Additional or alternative sources of funding are to be discussed and handled by RIT senior design advisers. It is the job of the project manager to account for all spending and keeping the team on budget. Additional budget restrictions that may come into consideration are to be considered BEFORE the end of SDI (Incidence in which excessively expensive optics equipment may be necessary to complete the project). All purchasing is to be done through the associated department alloted to head the project. Purchasing requests are to be approved both by the Project Manager and Team Manager before a purchase is made. The project manager may overrule the decision of the team leader if approval from the faculty adviser is given.

Additional Customer/Legal Constraints
Informational Property Considerations

Team Values & Norms

External Value & Norm List

Grading Structure

Grade Level MSD I MSD II
D Team members did limited to no benchmarking and design process towards the final project No functional device was produced by the team and limited documentation on why the project failed was produced
C Benchmarking and needs assessments were preformed but no designed model of the project exists The device functions but with limited repeatability and is out of functional specifications
B The team appears to be on task within their appointed time settings but has limited documentation on their progress The device functions as more of a lab setting unit. The unit is functional, but can not be operated in a simple manor with limited training. If the project is a failure, documentation was produced documenting the failures and how they can later be resolved by another team.
A The team holds a full information database populated on the EDGE website on their progress and is in position to enter SDII and begin to construct their device in accordance with a complete needs assessment and analysis of the current experimental technology The device functions as designed and can output repeatable samples with the desired metrics. If the project does not preform as desired: documentation on how to remedy this issue was produced and the team did indeed function throughout the project term to their fullest ability in attempting to produce the device. Detailed instructions on what went wrong have been produced in a manor that appeals to the RIT adviser.

Required Resources

Item Source Description Available
Dr. Marcos Esterman ISE Faculty Guide Yes
Perluma Representative Perluma Customer ?
Dr. Carl Salvaggio CIS Technical Consultant Yes
Dr. John S. Arney CIS Technical Consultant Yes
Dr. Susan Farnand CIS Technical Consultant Yes
Item Source Description Available
Robotics Lab ME 09-2230 Work Space/Storage Yes
Sr Design Lab EE 09-3xxx Work Space Yes
ME Shop ME 09-2360 Parts Fabrication Yes
Brinkman CNC Lab CIMS Advanced Parts Fabrication Yes
Item Source Description Available
Desktop PC Throughout Programming Yes
Software TBD ? Department Used for Testing Unknown
Hardware TBD ? Department Used for Testing Unknown

Preliminary Work Breakdown Structure

Three Week Project Plan
Person Week 0->1 Tasks (TBD) Week 1->2 Tasks (TBD) Week 2->3 Tasks (TBD)
All Members Week one will be much more than the typical meet and greet your team members session. Due to the extremely aggressive nature of the project's scope it will be expected that the project manager will conduct a full informational session on the science behind a micro-goniophotometer. In addition to this meeting it will be expected of each team member to research how their individual position will contribute to the overall project. (For instance: The electrical engineers will research how devices used in gloss measurements can be integrated into the project, the mechanical engineers will research how physical constraints of the technology contribute to the device's integrity.) No formal assessment of this analysis will be conducted, however it is expected that the team will discuss their findings after the PM's informational session. Week two will focus on the individual team members meeting with professors from associated departments, the customer, and faculty advisers again in a fashion based on the student's job function. Also, the needs assessment will be analyzed and assessed by the entire team. Also preform team needs brainstorming. This week will use the needs assessments and information learned from past weeks to assess and benchmark current systems used in industry to measure gloss. The team will meet and contribute information pertaining to current systems in place, how these systems fulfill the needs of the customer, and areas that should be especially focused upon in designing the system. Once the project is understood brainstorm solutions to the problems isolated high level needs. Assemble these solutions and group them according to the team member that needs to solve them.
Project Manager Conduct meet and greet exercises. Establish an MS project, Entourage contact system, and Google group for the project. Breif team on the established science behind goniophotometery. Introduced the previously developed project readiness packet to the team members and make any necessary updates to the PRP. Ensure that all team members have an understanding of their function on the team and an established knowledge of goniophotometry. Ensure all team members have proper access rights to the digital functions established in week 1. Conduct brainstorming exercises with the team, review and reassess the needs assessment developed during DPM. Go over usage of Tortise SVN; if necessary, create an instructional packet on its usage. Benchmark the current products in the market and group the functional devices into groups. Assign these groups to team members according to their specific experience and training. Update the benchmarking specs. on the EDGE website. Ensure all team members can use Tortise SVN.
Electrical Engineer 1 Research how electrical engineering pertains to this project. Comprise a document containing information about what specific devices will be needed to create a system that can preform the desired functions as described by the project manager. Find out what kind of circuts will be needed to complete this project. Develop needs that will contribute to the project from a EE standpoint. Comprise a list in the imaging sector that focus on measuring gloss. Benchmark these devices and assess them and their electrical components. Establish a list of contacts that will contribute to the circut design within this project. Schedule a meeting with the most important of these contacts and explain the project to this person.
Electrical Engineer 2 Research how electrical engineering pertains to this project. Brush up with Labview and research what numerical metrics will be needed in using specific data aquisition devices. Develop needs that will contribute to the project from a EE standpoint. Comprise a list in the imaging sector that focus on measuring gloss. Benchmark these devices and assess them and the metrics involved in their operation. Establish a list of contacts that will contribute to the electrical data aquisition devices (optics devices, photo-receptors, servos) within this project. Schedule a meeting with the most important of these contacts and explain the project to this person.
Three Week Project Plan
Person Week 0->1 Tasks (TBD) Week 1->2 Tasks (TBD) Week 2->3 Tasks (TBD)
Mechanical Engineer 1 (Chief Engineer) Conduct an additional meeting with the project manager to establish what exactly is expected of him/her. Review in further detail the EDGE system, project readiness packet, and science of goniophotometry. Conduct an overall review of the needs assessment in the PRP. Link the valuable information that each team member has obtained with respect to their specific major and create an updated needs assessment. Meet with the PM to establish new weights for these needs. Ensure that all the needs are set for this system. Conduct expansive benchmarking that explores the entire science of goniophotometry, printing, and gloss measurement. Combine all the benchmarking research and update the benchmarking sections on the EDGE website. Isolate the most essential preformance factors associated with the current devices in the market and establish how this project can combine and improve upon devices used in industry.
Mechanical Engineer 2 Research what mechanical aspects will be involved in this project. Comprise a list of physical design items, heat influence factors of materials, and other aspects of mechanical engineering that directly relate to this project. Look into the fuser test bed project and the design aspects the ME group contributed to it. Develop a contact list of the most important people that relate to the physical (structural) aspects of this project. Schedule a meeting with the person on this list you feel would contribute most to this project. Looking at the benchmarking data from other team members, necessary device functions, and metrics associated with the project begin to develop system that could fill these established need requirements. Create rough drafts of these designs. In addition, meet with shop managers to find out operational protocal for making parts, buying material, and available hours with respect to purchasing and manufacturing parts for this device.
Computer Engineer(s) Find out what software was created by Dr. Arney's team this summer. Obtain the source code from this project and begin to review it. If possible, meet with the creator of this code to find out all possible information about it. Although it may seem early, research the most viable coading form for this project. Explain to the project manager more about the capabilites of software design, hardware interaction, and GUI creation. Meet with the statistican (ISE student) and electrical engineers to discuss how data will be measured in this project and what needs to be outputted to the device's user. Study hardware/software interaction and ensure that all the devices listed by the EE student can be accomidated by the computer system. Update outputted metric list according to research being done by the IE student. Conduct a meeting with a human factors expert to begin to design a basic operating graphical interfact for the system. Ensure that this system is robust enough that a user with limited skill can operate it. Consult the updated needs section and ensure that software/interfact design fulfills all of the needs.
Industrial Engineer/Statistican Research what are the most essential metrics in goniophotometry and printing. Update the EDGE website metric section and make any other necessary alterations to the site with respect to metrics. Consult with the project manager about how to use features on the Edge site and review Wiki editing. Meet with Dr. Esterman and any other established experts from the printing field. Establish the most essential metrics that are used in the printing industry. Find out what statistical and math oriented tools are used to yield these values. Schedule a meeting with the CE and EE associated with data aquisition and data GUI design. Convey to them what needs to be measured from the sample, and what informationneeds to be outputted to the device's user about the sample being taken. Schedule a meeting with Dr. Susan Farnand and Dr. Arney. Focus on the most essential metrics in this science and how this device will measure, compute, and output them. Make sure that this list of values is kept lean.

Needs Hierarchy

Needs Importance Levels

Needs Summary
Need Needs to Importance
Need 1.1 Minimal Human Interaction 4
Need 1.2 Operated With Minimal Training 5
Need 1.3 Simple output 4
Need 1.4 Desktop Scale Unit 4
Need 2.1 Variety in surfaces 4
Need 2.2 Wide Variety of Medias 4
Need 2.3 Inclusive Package 2
Need 2.4 Customizable 2
Need 2.5 Adapt to expert user 3
Need 3.1 Easy Access 2
Need 3.2 Long usage life 2
Need 3.3 Life cycle accessed 1
Need 4.1 Low Cost Production 1
Need 4.2 Production ability of consumer 4
Need 4.3 Environmentally friendly 3
Need 5.1 Limited Heat Production 4
Need 5.2 No HAZ-MAT 3
Need 5.3 Push Button Operation 5
Need 6.1 Measure Gloss 5
Need 6.2 Variable Angles 5
Need 6.3 Preforms Quickly 2
Need 6.4 Better Than Current Products 5
Need 6.5 Reflectance/Distribution 5
1 = Least Important/ 5 = Essential


The table below presents the metrics, or engineering specifications, that will be used by the team to design against.

List of Metrics
Metric No. Metric Units Importance
1 Initial Cost US Dollars 2
2 Maintenance Cost US Dollars/Year 2
3 Lifespan Years 2
4 Multilingual Operation/Instructions Yes/No 1
5 Angle Degrees 5
6 Length Meters 5
7 Reflectance nanometers 5
8 Light Intensity Candela 5
9 Spectrum Wavelength m 4
10 Spectrum Frequency Hz. 4
11 Power Watts 4
12 Luminous Intensity Watt/Steradium 4
13 Heat British Thermal Units 4
14 Volume Cubic Meters 4
15 Able To Measure Gloss Yes/No 5
16 Produces Output In < 1min. Yes/No 2
17 Covers Angles from 0-90 Degrees Yes/No 3
18 Vibration/Bump Resistant Yes/No 2
19 Meet/Surpass Current Gloss Devices Yes/No 4
20 Environmental Impact Eco-Points 1
21 Operates With 1 Button Push Yes/No 3
22 Measures Light Distribution Yes/No 3
23 Measures Reflectance Yes/No 3
1 = Least Important/5=Essential
Customer Needs as Related to Engineering Metrics Matrix
Needs and Metrics Engineering Metric 1 Engineering Metric 2 Engineering Metric 3 Engineering Metric 4 Engineering Metric 5 Engineering Metric 6 Engineering Metric 7 Engineering Metric 8 Engineering Metric 9 Engineering Metric 10 Engineering Metric 11 Engineering Metric 12 Engineering Metric 13 Engineering Metric 14 Engineering Metric 15 Engineering Metric 16 Engineering Metric 17 Engineering Metric 18 Engineering Metric 19 Engineering Metric 20 Engineering Metric 21 Engineering Metric 22 Engineering Metric 23
Customer Need 1.1
Customer Need 1.2
Customer Need 1.3 x x x x
Customer Need 1.4 x
Customer Need 2.1
Customer Need 2.2
Customer Need 2.3
Customer Need 2.4
Customer Need 2.5 x x x x x
Customer Need 3.1 x
Customer Need 3.2 x
Customer Need 3.3
Customer Need 4.1 x x
Customer Need 4.2
Customer Need 4.3
Customer Need 5.1 x
Customer Need 5.2 x
Customer Need 5.3 x
Customer Need 6.1 x x x x x
Customer Need 6.2 x x
Customer Need 6.3 x x
Customer Need 6.4 x x x x
Customer Need 6.5 x x x x

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