P09505: Low Energy Printing (Xerox)


Project Summary Project Information

It is broadly recognized that xerographic digital printers are quite energy intensive and as customers become more and more environmentally conscious they are demanding improvements. The ability to be more energy efficient is not just the "green" thing to do; it is increasingly becoming a significant competitive advantage. In addition, all print engine providers, Xerox, HP, Ricoh, Samsung, Lexmark, Kodak, etc. strive to meet more and more stringent Energy Star and other certification requirements. While print engine providers have considerably reduced the power required to print at a given process speed over the last decade, there still is opportunity and a need to further reduce printer power. A large share of any xerographic printer power is consumed by the fusing sub-system: where toner is heated well above its melting point, so as to enable heat flow, coalescence and paper adhesion. Improved low energy fusing is the target for this project.

This senior design project is challenged to re-consider the design of an extremely low power, non-thermal fusing system: identify performance specifications and critical parameters for potential adaptation to a commercially available monochrome printer, complete its design as a retrofit to an existing printer, and initiate or complete a prototype for market evaluation.


Project Name
Low Energy Printing
Project Number
Project Family
Printing Systems
Printing & Imaging Systems
Start Term
End Term
Faculty Guide
Mr. Bill Nowak (ME)
(585) 422-4822
Faculty Consultant
Dr. Marcos Esterman (ISE)
Primary Customer
John Knapp - Research Fellow
Xerox Corp. - Marking Elements & Integration Lab


Team Documents

Planning System Level Design

Staffing Requirements

Concept Design Review Documents (SD I)

Detailed Design Review Documents (SD I)

Managerial Design Review Presentation (SD I)

Technical Conference Publication (SD II)

Final Technical Paper

Poster Publication (SD II)

Managerial Design Review Presentation (SD II)

Photo Gallery

Background Documents

A European energy study was completed and a comprehensive report on xerographic fusing including fusing concepts is available and can be downloaded in PDF format on the below website under "Task 6 - Technical Analysis BAT"


A comprehensive tutorial on fusing is taught periodically at IS&T Non-Impact Printing Conferences most recently on 9/8/08 in Pittsburgh, PA. The below document has excerpts from that tutorial focusing on fusing methods. This senior design project would like to focus on a style of xerographic fusing described herein as "cold-pressure" as a method to potential reduced energy requirements of xerographic products.

"Fusing Technologies & Toner Materials Relationships"

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