P10511: Miniaturization of Xerography
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AMORFIX - A Morphing Fixture for Photoreceptor Charge Testing

AMORFIX - A Morphing Fixture for Photoreceptor Charge Testing

Project Summary Project Information

Over the past decade the cost of xerographic digital printer hardware has continued to drop while at the same time print quality, print speed, and reliability has continuously improved. Much of this cost reduction is related to what we will call "The Miniaturization of Xerography". One "figure of merit" gauge of this miniaturization is the size of the photoreceptor required to produce a given print rate, (Pr /PPM). It turns out that when tracked over an extended timeframe, the diameter of photoreceptor drum required to produce a particular print rate has fallen by about a factor of two per decade over the last three decades. The current state requires about a 24mm diameter photoreceptor drum for <40 prints per minute, (ppm), a 40mm diameter photoreceptor drum for > 40ppm, and about an 80mm diameter drum for >80ppm. This miniaturization has been vital to offering low cost digital color printing where the number of printer components is multiplied by the number of colors.

This miniaturization is the result of several innovations and advances in sub-system processes, new materials, and process controls. For example: the wear rate of new photoreceptor materials has dramatically improved, thus allowing smaller photoreceptors to be used, with small photoreceptors other sub-systems followed suit. For example the development sub-systems now use low cost high tolerance rolls and semi-conductive or conductive developers that significantly reduced the waterfront for development subsystems, and finally laser exposure requires much less space than early bulky optical systems.

The photoreceptor charging system has also undergone significant changes over this time frame. The major improvement has been the displacement of bulky high voltage corona emitting devices for compact bias charge rolls (BCR's), particularly for low end office and personal printers. While there are tradeoffs in reliability, cost, size, and footprint for corona vs. BCR devices that ultimately determine selection for any particular printer architecture there continues to be a need for reduced footprint for charging devices, particularly for high speed applications.

Project Description: This initial project seeks to design a xerographic charging test fixture that can be used to evaluate these tradeoffs for new emerging and experimental high speed BCR's and compact solid state corona charging devices. The fixture will be fully automated with digital data collection and be used to explore selected experimental charging device configurations and technologies. It will be capable of measuring charging rates on simulated dielectric drums, under numerous critical parameter conditions such as photoreceptor speeds and other spacing and applied voltage set up settings. It will use the waterfront required to charge a photoreceptor to a uniform surface potential per process speed (mm/sec) as its miniaturization figure of merit.

For an introduction to this project, click on the following link for the Project Readiness Package. More detailed information will be discussed in class with your Guide and Customer.

Background reading:

Week 1 Introduction:

Xerox

Xerox

Project Name
The Miniaturization of Xerography-Charging Device Characterization
Project Number
P10511
Project Family
Printing Systems Family
Track
Printing and Imaging Systems Track
Start Term
2009-2
End Term: 2009-3
Faculty Guide
Bill Nowak
Faculty Consultant
Mike Zona
Industrial Consultants (disciplinary subject matter experts)
Dale Mashtare, Member of Research Staff, Xerox Corporation
Sponsor/Customer
John Knapp, Research Fellow, Xerox
(585) 422-5911, John.Knapp@Xerox.com
MSDI MSDII

Team Unavailability and Meeting Times.xls

Week 1

Photoreceptor Sketch 1.jpg

Photoreceptor Sketch 2.jpg

Trek 610C.pdf - Trek High Voltage Supply Manual

Week 2

Customer House of Quality rev1.xlsx

Customer House of Quality rev2.xlsx

Week 2 Status Update Presentation.pdf

Week 3

Charge Measurement Sketch.jpg

Gannt Chart

Risk Assessment rev1.xlsx

Initial Concept Sketches

Week 3 Status Update Presentation.pdf

Week 4

Objective and Function Tree.pptx

Risk Assessment rev2.xlsx

Concept Generation Sketches

Week 4 Status Update Presentation.pdf

Week 5

ISE and EE System Flow

EE Bill of Materials.docx

Systems Design Review.pdf

Systems Design Review Meeting Minutes.docx

Week 6-8

Risk Assessment rev3.xlsx

CAD Part Screenshots - CAD Assembly as of Week 8

EE Wiring Schematic.docx

Week 8 Status Update Presentation.pdf

Week 9

Risk Assessment rev4.xls

Bill of Materials rev1.xls

CAD Part Drawings - Contains ALL up to date drawings

Preliminary Test Plan.doc

Detailed Design Review.pdf

Week 10

Risk Assessment rev5.xls

Test Plan rev2.doc

Test Plan rev3.doc

Risk Assessment rev6.xls

MSDI Gantt Chart rev3

MSDII Gantt Chart rev1

MSDI Meeting Minutes.xls

Bill of Materials rev2.xls

CAD Part Screenshots Wk10 - CAD Assembly as of Week 10

MSDII Team Availability Sheet.xlsx

MSDII Gantt Chart rev1 - from MSDI Week 10

Week 1

Purchase Requisition McMaster.docx

Purchase Requisition Online Metal Store.docx

Purchase Requisition Stock Drive Products.docx

Week 2

Technical Paper Outline.docx

MSDII Gantt Chart rev2.jpg

Week 3

Poster Sketch rev1.jpg

MSDII Gantt Chart rev3.jpg

Week 4

Test Plan rev4.docx

Poster Sketch rev2.pptx

Week 5

Test Plan rev5.docx

Technical Paper rev1.docx

Week 6

Technical Paper rev2.docx

Week 7

Poster Layout rev3.pptx

Poster Layout rev4.pptx

CAD system assembly image.jpg

Week 8

Poster Layout rev5.pptx

Poster Layout rev5.pdf

Week 9

Developed Labview Interfaces

Week 10

Bill of Materials rev4.xlsx

Test Results Summary.xlsx

Technical Paper rev3.pdf

Poster Layout rev6.pdf

Final Project Presentation.pdf

Final Test Plan.pdf