P12556: Wyman Gordon Forging Locator

Detailed Design

Table of Contents

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Feasibility / Engineering Analysis


Laser Characterization (OPTONCDT ILR1181 Laser Distance Sensor)



Time of Flight Sensor Fundamentals

Time of flight sensors (TOFs) operate by sending out a laser pulse. This laser pulse will then reflect off of a given surface and a portion of the laser pulse is returned to the sensor's aperture. The sensor then calculates the difference in time from when the signal was sent and went it was recieved to determine the distance of the surface from the sensor.

In any given environment, noise will be visible to the sensor. Fortunately, the infrared pulse from the sensor will have more power than the noise floor, clearly making it easily distinguishable.


Since we are using laser equipment, we must follow the standards and safety regulations defined by OSHA for Class II lasers

Safety Documentation

Program Interface

The sensor comes pre-packaged with a program interface that allows the following capabilities:

Data Sheet



Logic Setup

Sensor Positioning Logic

Sensor Positioning Logic

High and Low Indication

High and Low Indication

Using the alarm provided by the OPTONCDT ILR1181 Sensors, we can provide the user feedback on the location of the billet with repsect to preset tolerances. For example, if the billet is within spec of too close to the sensor, an alarm will trigger high (24V). If the billet is too far, the alarm will trigger low (16V). When all 4 sensors trigger high, the billet is within spec and a green light indicator will switch on, confirming the billet is ready to be pressed.


When the alarm line is low, the circuitry in the respective arrow is triggered, turning on the red LEDs; indicating the direction the billet is to be moved. When all alarms are high, the green LED circuitry for the circle indicator will turn on giving the go ahead to the operators. This setup requires 2 different types of circuit boards.

Prototype Display

Prototype Display

Circuit Simulations

Arrow Circuit
Circle Circuitry All High
Circle Circuitry All Low
Circle Circuitry Worst Case

Display Circuit PCB Layout

PCB Layout for the arrow and circle circuit boards

Wire harness Diagram

Here is a layout of the wiring that will be implemented to collect data onto the laptop as well as send the alarm voltage to the display.
Wiring Schematic

Below is a link to additional drawings addressing the display, and the needed harness lengths for the given laser setup Additional Electrical Notes


CAD files


Assembled Enclosure

Assembled Enclosure

Exploded View

Exploded View

To enable us to utilize the sensors from Sigma-Epsilon, protective housing is required. THe environment consists of high temperatures from preheated top and bottom dies (700 - 900 F), water, and lubricants. Therefore, the primary and secondary functions of the enclosure is for thermal insulation and foreign body protection, respectively.

The enclosure consists of an aluminum housing made of 1/8" sheet metal, and 1/4" milled block for the bottom. In order to guarantee the sensor is level and secured, the bottom portion of the enclosure must be thicker. The overall weight is 9.5 lbs.

The rear face of the enclosure supports an external port for the electrical signals and power to the sensor. The front face has a viewing hole, allowing the sensor to send and recieve infrared signals. The view hole is approximately 2" in diameter.

To enhance the performance of our sensor in the given environment, an air purge system is implmented. This air purge system will expel air through the viewhole in order to clear debris within its line of sight.


To calculate the necessary insulation for our box we made the following assumptions:

The resulting thermal conductivity necessary for our applications must be less than 0.116 W/m-K

Insulation Data Sheet

Calculation Details

Enclosure Support

Assembled Enclosure Support

Assembled Enclosure Support

The support offers the vertical and horizontal freedom for placing the laser's line-of-sight onto particular billet geometries. The overall build is made of aluminum block and tubing as well as a steel base that will interact with T-slot guide rails. The overall weight is 24 lbs. (Exploded View)

The horizontal travel is achieved using a double rail system. The steel base supports the vertical adjustment apparatus as well as the enclosure. The horizontal motion can be limited with the use of a set screw locking onto the track.

The vertical motion is achieved using telescoping tubing. There is a 5" adjustable height range that is maintained with the use of a 3/8" setscrew.

An alternative configuration for the sensors observing the die location only requires the steel rail support to fasten to the bottom of the enclosure.

Set Screw Analysis

To determine how much pressure is required from the set screws to hold up the enclosure a quick static analysis with friction was done. Using a weight of 14.24 lbs. for the weight, a friction coefficient of 1.05 ( Aluminum on Aluminum dry), and a minimum area of contact of 2.625 sq in. (representing the sensor at its maximum height), the necessary pressure is about 5.2 psi from a 3/8" set screw.


Rail Support System

System Support Assembled

System Support Assembled

The overall supporting structure of the system will rest on the shoe of the Die Press. The overall length is 4 ft and supports the horizontal travel of the sensors. The build is made of aluminum tubing and steel tracks. The weight is 43 lbs. without sensors and 88 lbs with the 1 billet sensor and 1 die sensor.

The system is secured to the shoe using a magnetic system attachment. This prevents the system from shifting before,during, and after the pressing process

Exploded View


Structural Analysis

Stress Analysis

Stress Analysis

A basic static analysis was done to determine the stability and strength of the setup. The results show a maximum stress of 123 psi on the guide rail and a maximum strain of 9.1565 micro-in/in , well within the safety of the system.

Display Enclosure

Display Enclosure

Display Enclosure

the display will be communicating with the operators on floor to adjust the billet accordingly Via an LED directional display. Three displays are to be used and located in view of the fork-lift operators, the press operator, and the personnel adjusting the billets. The displays will be exposed to water and lubrication from the forging processes.

A wash-down rated PVC enclosure is to be used. Its lightweight and easily customizable features make it a suitable choice for our applications. It will be vertically mounted to either a free-stand or magnetically adhered to the press structure.

Conceptual Display Enclosure

Air Purge System

Reference System: Delta v3 Optical Barrier Air Purge System

Reference System: Delta v3 Optical Barrier Air Purge System

The air purge system to be implemented is a 1/8 HP pump with pressures equal to 10 psi and a mass flow rate of 0.65ft^3/min. This will be split six ways to each sensor housing. The hosing will be steel braided hosing and will feature quick disconnects to the enclosures.

Designed Air Purge Distribution

Bill of Material (BOM)

Excel File

Test Plans

Conceptual Test Plan

One of our initial tests will verify the functional capabilities of the laser on glowing red metal. The selected laser has been tested to operate when view glowing red metal at lower temperatures, but unsure of higher temperatures. The following test procedure will address this uncertainty:

Laser Test Procedure:PDF

Due to the high temperatures, thermal expansion will be taken into account for the difference in cold and hot readings off of the test materials

Thermal Expansion Analysis

Risk Assessment

Excel File

Detailed Design Review

Detailed Design Presentation


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