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P14231: UAV Aerial Imaging
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Detailed Design

Table of Contents

Aircraft Construction

The purpose of this build log is to document all techniques, materials and processes that were used in assembling and adapting the aircraft to our needs.

Unboxing the Penguin

The Finwing Hobby Universeye Penguin aircraft, as we received it.
The Box

The Box

Penguin in Box

Penguin in Box

What Comes in the Box

What Comes in the Box

Power System Components

Power System Components

Bag of Hardware Components & Servos

Bag of Hardware Components & Servos

Forward Hatch

Forward Hatch

The Horizontal Stabilizer

The Horizontal Stabilizer

The Vertical Stabilizer

The Vertical Stabilizer

The Wings & Wing Spar Attachment Tube

The Wings & Wing Spar Attachment Tube

We did an initial dry fit of most of the components to ensure that there were no issues with the aircraft upon arrival. We did not dry fit the horizontal stabilizer, because this requires removing some of the temporary structural supports molded on the fuselage and could have led to inadvertent damage prior to construction.

Dry Fit of the Penguin

Dry Fit of the Penguin

The Motor Mount

The Motor Mount

Vertical Tail - note the temporary structural support

Vertical Tail - note the temporary structural support

Penguin Interior

Penguin Interior

The majority of the parts of the Penguin seemed well moulded and fit together reasonably. Some notes regarding the quirks of our particular Penguin:

Overall the aircraft appears to be well constructed and well packed, showing no signs of damage during shipping.

However, it was immediately noted that the suggested method of mounting the battery in the fuselage - simply applying velcro to both - would be inadequate and would not hold the battery in place should the aircraft experience inverted flight. A common and more robust method of holding a battery in an RC aircraft was found - velcro straps.

Replacement Mounting Board

As noted in the Unboxing section, it was found that the supplied mounting board presented a risk of allowing the battery to shift in flight, and that using velcro straps in place of the supplied sticky-backed velcro was preferred. However, the supplied board fits flush inside the aircraft - there is no space beneath it to run straps. It was decided that a completely new board could be easily fabricated using CAD and the laser cutter available to us through the Aero Design Team.

Design Philosophy

Since the much of the geometric design done on the mounting board could be easily classified as "reverse engineering," the following design philosophy was followed:

Design Concept:

Solidworks was used to create the model for the replacement mounting board.

Making the Canopy Replacement Mold

The decision to invest time on a replacement canopy was based on the following three criteria:

It quickly became clear that due to the complex curvature of the Penguin's forward hatch, creating the mold for the new canopy would be easier to accomplish while the aircraft's fuselage was still in two pieces. This extended the build time of the aircraft. The mold for the new canopy would be made from blue core foam, since it was available through the Aero Design Team. Several different methods were attempted to create the outline of the canopy base on the mold, including:

All of these methods failed. The only method that proved successful was to simply create a large block of foam, and then use a piece of wire to trace the outline of the penguin, creating a series of holes that were then connected with a pen. The downside of this method is that it requires significant skill to carve the mold and ensure that it remains symmetrical. See the steps below for the process of creating and shaping the canopy mold.

Step 1: Create the Mold Block

Fairly self-explanatory: cutting foam pieces to create a big block that can be carved to shape in the following steps.

In this step we use the following tools:

The 2

The 2" thick foam sheet used to create the mold block

The 2

The 2" thick by 6" wide blocks used to create the mold block

The cut foam sheets were glued together with foam safe Loctite Spray Adhesive

The cut foam sheets were glued together with foam safe Loctite Spray Adhesive

The mold block, ready for outline tracing

The mold block, ready for outline tracing

Step 2: Trace the Bottom of the Canopy Outline onto the Mold Block

In this step, we trace the bottom (the part of the canopy that will interface with the fuselage) onto the mold block. We also do a bit of initial shaping of the mold.

In this step we use the following tools:

The bottom outline of the canopy mold, traced on with a piece of wire

The bottom outline of the canopy mold, traced on with a piece of wire

The outline of the bottom of the canopy, and initial rough shaping of the bottom of the mold block

The outline of the bottom of the canopy, and initial rough shaping of the bottom of the mold block

Step 3: Shape the Bottom of the Canopy Mold

In this step, we shape the bottom of the mold so it fits to the fuselage. Getting the mold block/fuselage interface as close to flush as possible is critical - it will ultimately determine how well our replacement canopy fits to the aircraft. This step includes a lot of "guess and check" - checking the fit of the mold block on the fuselage, making changes, re-checking, etc., until the mold fit is satisfactory.

In this step we use the following tools:

The bottom of the mold, showing the cutout for the screw land

The bottom of the mold, showing the cutout for the screw land

The bottom of the mold block

The bottom of the mold block

The bottom of the mold block

The bottom of the mold block

A test fit of the mold block

A test fit of the mold block

A test fit of the mold block

A test fit of the mold block

A test fit of the mold block

A test fit of the mold block

A test fit of the mold block, showing the gaps that will be filled with Bondo later

A test fit of the mold block, showing the gaps that will be filled with Bondo later

Step 4: Shape "Top View" of the Canopy Mold

The next step in the mold creation process is to shape the foam so that it conforms to the top-down projected shape of the canopy area (i.e. - the sides of the fuselage). This was completed by taping the mold in place on the aircraft with very low-tack (non-sticky) tape to avoid damage to the foam, and then tracing the rough outline onto the foam using a pencil. The foam was then shaped in the same manner as in Step 3.

Note: It is important to remember at this stage that the mold being created is what is referred to as a "male" mold - the part will be created on the outside of it. This means that it should be slightly undersized to accommodate for the thickness of the part. Also remember that we plan to coat the entire foam mold in Bondo for smoothness and hardness, and that the Bondo layer will take up additional space.

In this step we use the following tools:

The mold block, taped to the aircraft

The mold block, taped to the aircraft

The mold block, taped to the aircraft

The mold block, taped to the aircraft

A centerline mark on the mold for alignment

A centerline mark on the mold for alignment

Outline traced on the mold block in pencil

Outline traced on the mold block in pencil

Shaping the mold block

Shaping the mold block

Shaping the mold block

Shaping the mold block

Shaping the mold block

Shaping the mold block

Test fit of the mold block

Test fit of the mold block

Test fit of the mold block

Test fit of the mold block

Test fit of the mold block

Test fit of the mold block

Step 5: Shape the Side Profile of the Canopy Mold

In this step we finally shape how the canopy will look from the side, and how it will define the new profile of the aircraft. The final profile for the canopy was not based on any numerical analysis or CFD, as an accurate CAD model of the Penguin's geometry would have taken far too much time to create and would probably have not been accurate enough to simulate real conditions anyway. This being the case, the profile was based on the following qualitative criteria:

The intended benefit of the replacement canopy is to improve the aerodynamics and handling of the aircraft. A side benefit is that there will be more interior space available for components.

Profile options sketched on with a pencil

Profile options sketched on with a pencil

A centerline on the mold helps keep the two halves symmetrical during shaping

A centerline on the mold helps keep the two halves symmetrical during shaping

Half the mold was shaped to check if the sketches were possible.

Half the mold was shaped to check if the sketches were possible.

Half the mold was shaped to check if the sketches were possible.

Half the mold was shaped to check if the sketches were possible.

As may be apparent from these pictures, the sketches on the foam were simply to get an idea of the desired shape and were quickly abandoned once actual material removal began. After half the mold was shaped to roughly the desired shape, the other half was shaped to match. Cracks developed along the way between the layers of foam, and these were filled in with Bondo to prevent the mold falling apart and give a continuous surface.

Shaping the profile

Shaping the profile

Shaping the profile

Shaping the profile

Filling cracks with Bondo

Filling cracks with Bondo

Filling cracks with Bondo

Filling cracks with Bondo

Testing the fit

Testing the fit

Testing the fit - shows overhang near the nose that will be corrected.

Testing the fit - shows overhang near the nose that will be corrected.

Testing the fit

Testing the fit

Final shaping of the foam before applying the Bondo coat. Notice that several other cracks have developed between the foam sheets, and have been filled with Bondo. Unfortunately, this has the side effect of making it difficult to sand the surface uniformly, as the Bondo is harder to sand than foam. It is recommended therefore that as little Bondo as possible be applied and that it be applied in such a way as to minimize the impact on the profile of the mold.

These pictures were taken after the bottom of the mold had been coated with Bondo and pressed onto the aircraft to make a better fit. This process is described in the next step.

Testing the fit of the final foam shaping

Testing the fit of the final foam shaping

Testing the fit of the final foam shaping

Testing the fit of the final foam shaping

Step 6: Hardening & Smoothing the Canopy Mold

Since this mold is intended to create complex geometry, use of a vacuum bag system will be required. A vacuum bag system of the type we are planning to use essentially utilizes slightly higher than ambient air pressure (due to suction from the system and tension in the bag) to mold complex shapes effectively. This means that the mold must meet the following criteria:

Bondo car body filler was selected because it was readily avaiable and has been used by the Aero Design team before to create molds and parts for aircraft, and is known to be foam safe - solvents in other types of fillers may dissolve foam. The Bondo layers were applied first to the bottom of the mold, and the mold was pressed onto the Penguin canopy area with a layer of painter's plastic in between to prevent the Bondo from sticking to the plane. This allowed the Bondo to form to the exact shape of the canopy/fuselage interface. Several coats may be needed to fill all gaps effectively.

Next, a thin (~1/16") coating of Bondo was applied over the entire "top" of the canopy mold. This allows for any final shaping to be done and hardens the mold. It took two coats to get a good surface, and then flat areas and voids were filled in later.

Bondo should always be sanded and cleaned (we cleaned with compressed air) between coats.

Constant checking against the fuselage was done to ensure a good fit. The mold was undersized by about 1/32 inch to leave space for the finished part to fit flush with the edges of the fuselage.

Motor Assembly

All the components of the motor assembly

All the components of the motor assembly

The package that we purchased online included an M2815 electric brushless motor and mounting accessories compatible with the aircraft. A list of all the parts and their associated fasteners is below, a picture is at right.

Component Photos

M2815 brushless electric motor

M2815 brushless electric motor

Aluminum motor mount

Aluminum motor mount

Captive wood motor mount

Captive wood motor mount

Threaded prop shaft adapter

Threaded prop shaft adapter

Prop washers - note teeth

Prop washers - note teeth

Lock nut

Lock nut

Below are a series of photos outlining the steps for assembly of the motor.

Notes:

The stationary end of the motor. The four holes pictured are used to attached the aluminum motor mount.

The stationary end of the motor. The four holes pictured are used to attached the aluminum motor mount.

Using a Phillips screwdriver, install the motor mount using the small black screws.

Using a Phillips screwdriver, install the motor mount using the small black screws.

The rotating end of the motor. The four holes pictured are used to attach the threaded prop shaft adapter.

The rotating end of the motor. The four holes pictured are used to attach the threaded prop shaft adapter.

Use a 3/64 Alan key to install the threaded prop shaft adapter onto the rotating side of the motor, then slide on the two prop washers, with their teeth facing one another. Follow with the lock nut.

Use a 3/64 Alan key to install the threaded prop shaft adapter onto the rotating side of the motor, then slide on the two prop washers, with their teeth facing one another. Follow with the lock nut.

Motor assembly completed

Motor assembly completed

Prototyping, Engineering Analysis, Simulation

Computer Engineering Analysis

This function will take a picture and is currently located in the APM source.

static void do_take_picture()

{

#if CAMERA == ENABLED

camera.trigger_pic();
if (g.log_bitmask & MASK_LOG_CAMERA) {
Log_Write_Camera();
}

#endif

}

This function is called once a picture has been taken. It will save the telemetry and gps data to a log file.

static void Log_Write_Camera()

{

#if CAMERA == ENABLED

struct log_Camera pkt = {
LOG_PACKET_HEADER_INIT(LOG_CAMERA_MSG),
gps_time : g_gps->time,
latitude : current_loc.lat,
longitude : current_loc.lng,
altitude : current_loc.alt,
roll : (int16_t)ahrs.roll_sensor,
pitch : (int16_t)ahrs.pitch_sensor,
yaw : (uint16_t)ahrs.yaw_sensor
};
DataFlash.WriteBlock(&pkt, sizeof(pkt));

#endif

}

This snippet is an example of the main loop that constantly checks for a signal from the autopilot. This is written in Ubasic and will be loaded onto the Canon camera's SDCard using the Canon Hacker's Dev Kit (CHDK).

while 1

do
k = get_usb_power
until k>0
if k < 5 then gosub "ch1up"
if k > 4 and k < 8 then gosub "ch1mid"
if k > 7 and k < 11 then gosub "ch1down"
if k > 10 and k < 14 then gosub "ch2up"
if k > 13 and k < 17 then gosub "ch2mid"
if k > 16 and k < 20 then gosub "ch2down"
if k > 19 then print "error"

wend

end

This is an example of a function that would take a picture.

:ch1up

print "Ch1Up-Shoot"; k
set_zoom s
shoot
sleep 1000
return

Drawings, Schematics, Flow Charts, Simulations

Gopro Hero Port Schematics

Pin Out

The most promising avenue to trigger an image capture is by using the pin 12 and programmatically shorting this to ground. The schematics to be attempted to do this are :

Basic Functionality Schematic Advanced Functionality Schematic
Image:/public/Subsystem Design/assets/Gopro_Basic_Schematic.png Image:/public/Subsystem Design/assets/Go_Pro_Schematic_Adv.jpg

In order to have the camera recognize the external hardware, the hardware will need an EEPROM with is first memory location set to 9. This is a basic I2C check that the camera software does to ensure that what is connected is a valid attachment.

The breakout board that has been selected to expose the pins is:

Gopro Breakout Board
Image:/public/Subsystem Design/assets/GoPro_Breakout_Board_wip_2.png

To realize these designs the following will be needed:

Reverse engineering the Hero Port is likely to break the Gopro, and may not yield any results, it would be safer to choose a hard wired option.

Benefits:

Drawbacks:

Gopro Remote Control

The first hard wired option is to get a remote sold by Gopro and then hard wire it through a transistor and hook it up to the auto-pilot. The problem is that it will interfere with the ground communication control channel. To over come this issue the camera/remote package would need to be insulated and shielded as shown below, this will increase the volume dramatically, and may still not fix the problem.

Remote Dimensions
Image:/public/Detailed Design/Assets/Camera Options/remote.png

Benefits:

Drawbacks:

GoPro Wifi Control Interference Test

A test was conducted to see if the GoPro's wifi would interfere with the radio control of the aircraft. This test utilized a Spektrum AR500 receiver and DX6i DSMX radio. The GoPro's wifi was turned on, then the aircraft transmitter and finally the receiver were turned on. The radio exhibited no binding issues. At close proximity (<3 ft transmission distance), the aircraft operated normally with full control and no interference. The test was moved outside to examine if range would cause more interference. The test was repeated with the aircraft and receiver at ~150 ft from the transmitter, and was run for ~5 minutes. Throttle and servo functions were tested, and no interference was noted. However, the results of this test are deemed inconclusive as:
  1. There are numerous examples of hobbyists having issues with 2.4 GHz interference with the GoPro
  2. The Spektrum radio utilizes a FHSS system for avoiding interference, which is a good system but does not guarantee zero interference. For information on the Spektrum RC spread-spectrum radio technology, visit: spektrumrc.com
  3. Though interference may not happen all the time, it only takes a few seconds of interference to lose our aircraft. This test was a ~5 minute test, and is not statistically representative of future flights.
  4. The range tested in this test is not representative of the range that the aircraft would be flying at for picture taking. Future tests will be conducted when the weather improves to test at longer distances.
  5. This test was conducted with a Spektrum radio - since Spektrum is widely regarded as one of the superior quality brands, interference with the Spektrum system would almost certainly mean interference with the existing Tactic system. Specific information on the Tactic system is not available on their website - the company quotes that they have "frequency hopping technology" but do not elaborate.

Gopro Hard Wired

Failing success with the remote, an invasive hardware hack, soldering wires directly to the buttons, on the camera itself would yield the desired base functionality. The problem is the larger possibility of destruction of the Gopro. Depicted is the soldering steps to wire the Gopro.

Invasive solution
Image:/public/Detailed Design/Assets/Camera Options/gopro_invasive.png
Control Circuit
Image:/public/Detailed Design/Assets/Camera Options/gorpo_schem.png
Benefits:

Drawbacks:

Canon Camera & Canon Hacker Development Kit (CHDK)

A cannon camera attached to the APM

A cannon camera attached to the APM

The USB adapter wire & basic pin out

The USB adapter wire & basic pin out

The safest route is to use the Canon Hacker Development Kit (CHDK) to gain direct access to the camera via a USB cable. The CHDK is a non-invasive method of providing remote access to all camera functions. Cannon cameras have the unique ability to execute firmware additions from the SD card via remote through the USB data connection. CHDK is installed using STICK: Simple Tool for Installing CHDK, and is available for free here. A tutorial on how to put CHDK on your camera can be found here. A tutorial on how construct the customized USB cable and set up parameters in the Mission Planner can be found here.

CHDK accepts scripts written in both Lua and UBasic, and according to our present research can control up to 6 individual functions of the camera via the USB cable.

Benefits:

Drawbacks:

Canon Camera Options

There are a large number of Canon brand cameras compatible with the CHDK and ArduPilot, from cheap point-and-shoot cameras to high-end Digital SLR cameras. A list of all compatible cameras, and their associated CHDK firmware versions can be found here. A list of Canon's current products can be found here. The cameras we reviewed for selection are listed below with their pros and cons.

CMOS v. CCD

Our research on Canon camera sensors led us to the conclusion that for this application there would be very little effective difference between the image produced by a CMOS sensor and a CCD sensor. CCD sensors are an older, proven technology and theoretically are better in low light situations and historically are less prone to produce noise in the image than a CMOS sensor. However, current CMOS sensors have been developed to avoid noise production and in certain cases actually produce a less noisy image than a high speed CCD.

Canon PowerShot S110
Canon Powershot S110

Canon Powershot S110

Quick Specs:

Pros:

Cons:

Canon PowerShot SX260 HS
Canon Powershot SX260 HS

Canon Powershot SX260 HS

Quick Specs:

Pros:

Cons:

Canon PowerShot A4000 IS
Canon Powershot A4000 IS

Canon Powershot A4000 IS

Quick Specs:

Pros:

Cons:

Canon PowerShot A3400 IS
Canon Powershot A3400

Canon Powershot A3400

Quick Specs:

Pros:

Cons:

Canon PowerShot ELPH110 HS
Canon Powershot ELPH110 HS

Canon Powershot ELPH110 HS

Quick Specs:

Pros:

Cons:

Canon Powershot ELPH320 HS
Canon Powershot ELPH320 HS

Canon Powershot ELPH320 HS

Quick Specs:

Pros:

Cons:

Canon Powershot A2400 IS
Canon Powershot A2400 IS

Canon Powershot A2400 IS

Quick Specs:

Pros:

Cons:

Canon Powershot A2300
Canon Powershot A2300

Canon Powershot A2300

Quick Specs:

Pros:

Cons:

Because there is little difference between the cameras above for our purposes, it was recommended that the Canon Powershot A 2300 be purchased based on price point.

Bill of Material (BOM)

Materials Purpose Cost Source
(3) 20' spools 20 gauge wire Wire extension/routing for power ground/signal $16 DelCity
Heat Shrink Tubing Wiring Isolation & Safety $16 RadioShack
A2200 Canon Camera Photo acquisition $100 Amazon
Bondo car body filler Canopy mold creation touch-up and hardening $0 Available from RIT Aero Design
Insulation Foam Basic shaping of new canopy mold $0 Available from RIT Aero Design
Fiberglass Completion of canopy layup and construction $0 Available from RIT Aero Design
Balsa wood Equipment mounting brackets & trays ~$10 Available from local hobby shops
1/16 & &#8539; inch plywood Equipment mounting brackets & trays ~$25 (total) Available from local hobby shops
1/16 inch thick neoprene sheet Ensuring snug, vibration-free camera fit $25 Amazon
Penguin FPV Aircraft package Fly $215 Ready Made RC
New GoPro Hero Silver RMA camera inherited from previous teams $0 Received from GoPro RMA
GoPro Exposure Board Attempted gopro integration $34 Sweden
ArduPilot Autopilot ~ Legacy from Past Teams
ArduPilot Sensor Equipment Autopilot ~ Legacy from Past Teams
Total $441

Test Plans

Communications Test Plan

Phase Sorties Title Equipment Added Objectives
1 4-6 Test Signal Distance Antenna, ground station, ArduPilot Establish connection with the ground station and make sure signal is sent/received
2 2-4 Test Signal Strength Antenna, ground station, ArduPilot Make sure the signal strength is enough to travel over a distance and through obstructions
3 2-4 Determine Noise Level Antenna, ground station, ArduPilot Determine how noisy the signal is being transmitted

Camera Test Plan

Phase Sorties Title Equipment Added Objectives
1 2-4 Camera Trigger camera, wires, transistor, resistor, voltage supply Trigger the camera with a voltage source.
2 3-5 Camera Delay camera, wires, transistor, resistor, voltage supply, stop watch Trigger camera with voltage source and time delay with stop watch.
3 4-5 Camera Software Trigger ArduPilot, camera, wires, transistor Trigger the camera using the ArduPilot's software. Set the CAM_TRIGG_DIST to 1. Then according to the tutorial Small movements between GPS readings will cause the distance value to count up slowly and it should trigger the shutter every few seconds.
4 4-5 Detect Successful Capture ArduPilot,camera, wires, transistor, LED Trigger camera with voltage source and determine receive a signal from the camera verifying that the picture was taken.
5 4-5 Camera Delay with Software Trigger ArduPilot, camera, wires, transistor Trigger Camera with software and measure delay with software timers and interrupts.
6 5-10+ Picture Retrieval ArduPilot, camera, wires, transistor, memory card, laptop with memory card reader After having taken numerous pictures offload the images to validate their integrity.
7 5-10+ Picture Data Synchronization ArduPilot, camera, wires, transistor, memory card, laptop with memory card reader, GPS, inertial sensor After having taken numerous pictures and offloaded them, sync the picture data with the telemetry data captured at the same time. Verify that the times locations and orientations line up with the expected readings.

Airframe Test Plan

The table below is adapted from the Aircraft Test Plan document.
Phase Sorties Title Equipment Added Objectives
1 3-5 Initial Test Airframe alone Establish airworthiness of the airframe and gain piloting experience and familiarity with aircraft performance
2 2-4 Load Bearing Equivalent payload weight and approximate weight distribution Continue gaining experience with aircraft performance while assessing changes due to the addition of mission required weight
3 3-5 ArduPilot Ardupilot + Required Sensors, GPS Unit Test the reliability and validity of the ArduPilot for general flight conditions. Eventually assess the ability of the ArduPilot to be given throttle authority.
4 2-4 Integration Camera Equipment Test the integration between camera systems and the ArduPilot. At this point, all customer requirements should be demonstrated.
5 3+ Enhancement All baseline components, Upgrades and modifications as necessary Assess and create improvements or modifications for increased functionality to the design.

Risk Assessment

Risk # Description Consequences Causes Likelihood Severity L*S Mitigation Who is responsible
1 The firmware hack will not function on camera The software interface will not work, hard wired solution will have to be used A new firmware update is on the camera 1 3 3 older firmware is switched to Aaron
2 Canon Camera breaks new camera must be acquired short circuit or to much voltage applied to bus, battery fully drained 1 3 3 Soldering checked on usb cable, care taken when mounting camera Aaron
3 Learning the Software Camera will not work, or has a reduced functionality Insufficient documentation 1 3 3 Investigation into the depth of examples and documentation that exist as well as test programs done before moving down this path Aaron, Spencer, Tim
4 sd card breaks bad SD card, a short of some kind, data fault 1 1 1 avoid shorts, and have a backup sd card available to continue a test run Aaron
5 usb cable breaks new one must be made a crash, improper mounting, carelessness while testing or dismantling, general wear and tear or improper original creation 1 3 3 always careful while testing and dismantling, grasping by both ends and applying even pressure, a proper secure enclosure is developed Aaron, Spencer
6 Run out of storage on the ArduPilot for telemetry and gps data. No longer have positional data to associate with photos. Taking too many photos. 2 3 6 Offload the data to an external storage system. Tim
7 Delay from command to actual camera trigger. Data will not be in sync with photos. Time for camera to activate is not negligible. 3 1 3 Add a parameter that will offset the storing of data according to the camera delay. Tim, Aaron
8 Inaccurate gps data received. Photos could never be triggered or triggered prematurely. Photos not taken when commanded to. 2 3 6 Fly during optimal conditions to reduce chance of failure. All
9 Failure to account for part compatability across the board N/A (Anything) Inattention, haste, carelessness, improper analysis 1-3 1-3 1-9 Group communication, thorough research, and caution Spencer, Reed
10 Structural damage to airframe during assembly Strange aerodynamic effects, reduced strength, airframe failure Inattention, haste, carelessness. 1-3 1-3 1-9 Care, research regarding any deviations to standard procedure, research regarding potential failures during assembly process Spencer, Reed
11 Incomplete Assembly of airframe, leaving out a vital component Reduced functionality or aircraft failure Inattention, haste, carelessness. 1 3 1-3 Preflight and mid-assembly checks, plan assembly steps before executing, follow directions and double-check work. Spencer, Reed
12 Incorrect Assembly of airframe Reduced functionality Inattention, haste, carelessness. 1 1-3 1-3 Ensure that all modifications and/or assembly actions are either in accordance with instructions or analyzed and thought-out. Spencer, Reed
13 The radio does not work with the ArduPilot properly. Won't have any communication with the plane, won't be able to switch to manual. Firmware update could cause the communication link to be severed. 1 3 3 Thorough testing, communicate with other team members. Alex
14 Radio Breaks New radio module must be bought Short circuit / too much current or voltage 1 3 3 Be certain of voltage levels, check pin layouts, solder correctly Alex
15 Antenna Breaks New antenna must be acquired/implemented Plane crash, improper placement of components in the plane 3 1 3 Double check the solder joints, have other members review, check joints prior and after each flight Alex, Reed, Spencer
16 Wire disconnect No longer connected to the radio, won't be able to receive or transmit any signal Bad solder joint, dry solder joint, plane crash, plane vibrations 3 1 3 Check and recheck solder joints, have other members check joints, make sure joints are still good before and after each flight Alex
17 Latency Picture won't be taken on time because the signal won't be received by the radio at the proper time Distance from ground station to the radio 3 2 6 Equate latency from ground tests to make sure the latency is within a proper range Alex
18 Incorrect radio installation No signals received/transmitted Didn't read datasheet properly 1 3 3 Read datasheet, test radio before plane takes off Alex

Design Reviews

Detailed Design

Gate Review

MSD II Plan

Gantt chart of our preliminary MSD II schedule. public/Detailed Design/Assets/Gate Review/msd_two_gantt.png MSD II Plan

Presentation

Gate Review

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