P14231: UAV Aerial Imaging
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Systems Design

Table of Contents

Existing System Overview

The existing system consists of the APM 2.5 "ArduPilot" autopilot module and peripheral systems, as described in the images below.
ArduPilot System Overview

ArduPilot System Overview

Functional Analysis

Functional Decomposition

public/System Design/Functional Decomposition.jpg

Functional Layout

public/System Design/Functional Layout.png

Functional Flow

public/System Design/Functional Flow.png

Benchmarking

ArduPilot

Feature ArduPilot px4 flyduino
3-axis Gyros Yes Yes Ext
3-axis Accelerometers Yes Yes Ext
3-axis Magnetometer Yes Yes Ext
Barometric Pressure Sensor Yes Yes Ext
5 or 10 Hz GPS Module Yes Ext Ext
4Mb Storage for Automatic Data Logging Yes Ext Ext
Failsafe Processor Yes Ext Ext
Airspeed Sensor (Optional) No No
Current Sensor (Optional) No No
2-way Telemetry (Optional) No No
PWM Inputs 8 ? 5
PWM Outputs 8 4 8
GPIO 9 8 4
Interfaces Micro-USB, l2C, External GPS Micro-USB, 4xUART, 2xl2C, SPI, CAN Serial, l2C, UART
SD Card Yes Yes No
Price $160 $149 $52
Speed 16 MHz 168 MHz / 252 MIPS 16 MHz
External Inputs 32 32 32
Software Suite Yes Yes Yes

Airframe/Aircraft

Our research yielded two systems that would provide similar capability to the system we are trying to develop. The details of both are listed below.

APM: Plane by DIYDrones

APM:Plane (Top)

APM:Plane (Top)

APM:Plane (Top)

APM:Plane (Top)

The "APM: Plane" can be purchased at 3DRobotics.com. It is designed to be an easy, one-stop shop for anyone interested in an entry-level fixed-wing Unmanned Aircraft System. It is intended for individuals who are interested in flying an RC airplane from a first-person view, but are not interested in building one from scratch.

It has the following capabilities when fully outfitted:

Drawbacks:

CropCam

CropCam (Flight)

CropCam (Flight)

CropCam (System)

CropCam (System)

The "CropCam" is in essence the final goal of this project - a UAS capable of multi-spectrum imaging of agriculture. While it is certainly a polished example of an agricultural imaging system, it is unknown whether or not it can provide all of the data regarding aircraft attitude, altitude and location with each image it takes. This data is critical to the analysis done by imaging scientists on these images. Further information regarding the "CropCam" Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) can be found at cropcam.com. The system can be purchased at robotshop.com.

System Features:

Drawbacks:

Concept Development (generation, improvement, selection)

Item Options
Autopilot Modification Stock Modify Stock Previous Team's
Plane Selection Big Small Build a New One
Payload Selection GoPro Alternative Camera
GoPro Interface Invasive Hack API
Power Source Batteries Gasoline Hydrogen Fuel Cell
Airframe Validation Complete Cursory Trust Previous Team
Interfacing Wired Wireless
Pictures On Demand Waypoint triggered Video
Camera Opening Bomb Bay Doors Hole in plane External Mount
Paint Job Flame Tiger Stripes Lightning Bolt
LED Indicators Motor Logic Aircraft Control

Pugh Charts

System

Criteria Real Plane RC Plane w/o Autopilot RC Plane w/ Autopilot Pre-built $7k Trained Falcon
Cost Datum + + + +
Additional Hardware Required Datum - - - -
Integration Difficulty Datum - - + -
Picture Quality Datum - - - -
Repeatability Datum 0 0 0 -
Record Telemetry Datum - + + -
Navigation Datum - 0 0 -
Accuracy Datum - - - -
Ruggedization Datum + + + -
Telemetry Synchronization Datum - + + -
Dynamic Mission Datum 0 0 0 +
Total Minus Datum -7 -4 -3 -9
Total Plus Datum +2 +4 +5 +2
Total Datum -5 0 +2 -7

Camera Trigger Mechanism

Criteria Continuous Interval Imaging Manual Remote Trigger GPS Coordinate Trigger Video Stream
Difficulty Datum - - +
Complexity Datum - - 0
Accuracy Datum + + +
Delay (Latency) Datum - - 0
Reliability Datum 0 + +
Functionality Datum + + -
Extensibility Datum + + +
Storage Datum + + -
Photo/Data Synchronization Datum + + 0
Total Minus Datum 3 3 2
Total Plus Datum 5 6 4
Total Datum 2 3 2

Aircraft Type Analysis

Criteria Large Plane(Datum) Small Plane HL Sailplane Quadcopter Orinthopter
Stable Flight Datum - 0 - -
Payload Capacity Datum - - - -
Camera Compatibility Datum - - - -
Ruggedization Datum + + - -
Maintainance Datum + + - -
Versitility Datum - + + +
Complexity Datum + + - -
Aesthetics Datum 0 + + +
Flight Time Datum 0 + - -
Life Span Datum + + - -
Maneuverability Datum + 0 + +
Camera Vibration Interface Datum - + - +
Camera Mounting Options Datum - - - -
Total Minus Datum -6 -3 -10 -9
Total Plus Datum +5 +8 +3 +4
Total Datum -1 +5 -7 -5

GoPro Exposure

Criteria Solder Wires to Buttons (Datum) Use Breakout Board Breakout Board / API "Ribbon Cable"
Time Required Datum - - -
Irreparable Damage Datum + + 0
Size/Volume Required Datum - - -
Distributed Weight Datum 0 0 0
Weight Datum - - -
Modular Datum + + +
Cross-Platform Datum 0 0 0
Complexity Datum - - -
Reversibility Datum + + +
Ruggedization Datum - - +
Functionality Datum + + +
Extensibility Datum 0 + +
Total Minus Datum -5 -5 -4
Total Plus Datum +4 +5 +5
Total Datum -1 0 -2

Payload Mounting

Criteria Bomb Bay Door (Datum) Bomb Bay No Door External Fuselage Mount "External Wing Mount" Integrated/Streamlined
Weight Datum + + + +
Balance Datum 0 0 - +
Aerodynamic Interference Datum + - - +
Accessibility Datum 0 + + -
Impact on Electronic Interface Datum 0 - - +
Ruggedization Datum + - - +
Orientation Datum - + + -
Vibration Suppression Datum 0 - - +
Modularity Datum - - - -
Complexity Datum + + + -
Capacity (Space) Datum + - - 0
Capacity ( Weight) Datum 0 0 - 0
Total Minus Datum -2 -6 -8 -4
Total Plus Datum +5 +4 +4 +6
Total Datum +3 -2 -4 +2

Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment

Systems Design Review

System Design Presentation

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