P15230: Quadcopter
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Detailed Design

Table of Contents

This page entails the Sub-System and Detailed Design Progress of our project. Node directory Detailed Design Documents.

Sub-System Design

Prototyping, Engineering Analysis, Simulation

Drawings, Schematics, Flow Charts, Simulations

Hardware Overview
HW Overview

HW Overview

Micro Design

 Micro Design

Micro Design

Bill of Material (BOM)

Test Plans

Risk Assessment

User Safety Enhancement
User Safety

User Safety

Sub-System Design Reviews

Detailed Design

The following entails the Detailed Design phase. This ensues the entire design for the project before actual implementation.

Prototyping, Engineering Analysis, Simulation

Drawings, Schematics, Flow Charts, Simulations

Quadcopter CAD Models

Below are the custom component attachments for the quadcopter to meet technical and customer requirements. The sensor harness mounts the sonar sensors used for peripheral object detection and height measurement (when close to the ground). The last images are the design for the protective rotor shrouds, both for craft and user/bystander safety.
 Sensor Harness Design

Sensor Harness Design

 Sensor Harness Design

Sensor Harness Design

 Sensor Harness Design

Sensor Harness Design

 Sensor Harness Design

Sensor Harness Design

 Rotor Shroud Design

Rotor Shroud Design

 Quadcopter Render

Quadcopter Render

Below is the overall class diagram and state transitional statechart for the software to be implemented to control to quadrotor. The next subsections explain the key aspects of the navigation system; path planning, destination task, positioning/localization, and LIDAR for high confidence object detection. For more details, see overall software documentation in the Prototyping, Engineering Analysis, Simulation section.
 Overall Software Design Class Level

Overall Software Design Class Level

 Overall Software Design State Level

Overall Software Design State Level

Flight Actualization and Sonar Sensing
Below is overall functionality and flow of the program ran on the Teensy. The Teensy functions similar to an RC remote with Sonar relay able readings for the overall control program. Linked are the taskes critical to the microprocessor.
 Teensy Program Flow

Teensy Program Flow

Path Planning
Preceding is the overall flow for the Quadcopter to navigate to a set destination. For the competition this would be the each cardboard cutout.
 Navigation Flow

Navigation Flow


Below is the Class UML for the A* search environment. The map stored in the Grid class will be able export and import a new map as updated by the object detection framework.

 Global Pathing Framework

Global Pathing Framework


Sub-Tasks
Below is the flow digram for when the Quadcopter navigates to a set position. It then goes into a subroutine to find a face and take a picture.
 Find Face and Take Picture Task

Find Face and Take Picture Task


Localization
Below is the base algorithm to determine the coordinate position on the arena grid. This method uses the set positions of the routers, as well as the calculated distance of the craft from each router to create intersecting spheres. The three spheres can only intersect at two points. Treating the router's plane as z = 0, then one of these points can be ignored as it will be in the -z plane, and therefore underground. As this can't happen, there is only one point where all three spheres intersect, and that point is the position of the craft.
 Positioning Algorithms

Positioning Algorithms


As the craft is very unlikely to fly perfectly straight towards its destination, there is a chance of error in its flight path. In order to compensate for this, a simple algorithm will be used to check the craft's current flight direction and compare it to the path it should be taking. The algorithm will calculate the angle the craft to turn towards the target destination.

 Re-orienting Algorithms

Re-orienting Algorithms


LIDAR
 Line LIDAR Block Processing Simulink

Line LIDAR Block Processing Simulink


 Line LIDAR Simulink

Line LIDAR Simulink


The image below contains the test rig for using LIDAR on the pi.
 LIDAR Test Rig

LIDAR Test Rig


A sample output ran on a laptop can be seen at the link of the here.

Hardware Schematics

Current Sensing Wiring Schematic
Current Source Schematic

Current Source Schematic

Hardware Wiring Schematic

Hardware Layout

Hardware Layout

Connection Layout

Connection Layout

PCB

PCB Preview

PCB Preview

 PCB 3D Preview

PCB 3D Preview

Bill of Material (BOM)

Test Plans

Below are the test plans for the next phase of the project MSD II

Risk Assessment

Linked below are responses needed for Watchdog:
Critical Watch

Detailed Design Reviews


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