P16228: Magnetically Levitated Propeller
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# Preliminary Detailed Design

 Table of Contents 1 Team Vision for Preliminary Detailed Design Phase 2 Prototyping, Engineering Analysis, Simulation 3 Drawings, Schematics, Flow Charts, Simulations 4 Bill of Material (BOM) 5 Test Plans 6 Risk Assessment 7 Design Review Materials 8 Plans for next phase

This phase requires an overall basic design of the entire project. Here all the subsystems detailed more than the previous phase and they are all combined for the entire system. All the intricacies and final design will be completed in the next phase but mostly done in this one.

## Team Vision for Preliminary Detailed Design Phase

Goals
• Purchase pieces for prototype designs: Magnets, DC Motor, Beaglebone
• Create preliminary propeller case designs
• Begin coding
• Assembly of the entire system
• Update risks and Engineering Requirements
• Update BOM
• Drawings of designs
• Electrical designs, procedures, and diagrams
• Flow charts updated

Accomplishments

• All the goals set in the team vision were accomplished and even more than expected was completed. Several key components were broken down and detailed, materials were purchased, and contacts were made.

## Prototyping, Engineering Analysis, Simulation

#### Prototyping

Purchased Pieces

1. Magnets
2. Enclosure for magnets
3. Micro-controller
4. 3D printers on campus are available for creating propeller and enclosure

Arc Magnets

Ring Magnets

Enclosure for Magnets

• Choosing the propeller design was based off of the Pugh chart for the propeller and the DC motor that was purchased. Below is the chart describing the best choices.

Propeller Pugh chart

Pugh Charts

#### Engineering Analysis

Propeller Efficiency Calculations
• These calculations describe the performance of the propeller
• Involves the fluid bulk elasticity modulus, thrust, power, and velocity
• Equations displayed below

Propeller Efficiency Equation

• eff: Propeller Efficiency
• K: Fluid bulk elasticity modulus
• F: Thrust
• vo: Vehicle velocity
• P: Power
• Below is a spreadsheet filled with propeller efficiency calculations. It should be noted efficiency is directly related to the disk diameter and exit diameter. If the ratios are the same between two calculations, they will have the same efficiency. Propeller efficiency is essential to understand how well the propeller will perform under different conditions.

By Bernie Garcia

Propulsive Efficiency Calculations

• These calculations describe the propulsive performance of the propeller
• Involves area, density, velocity, and thrust
• Equations displayed below

Propulsive Efficiency Equation

• Eta: Propulsive Efficiency
• A: Propeller disk area
• F: Thrust
• vo: Vehicle velocity
• Rho: Density
• Below is a spreadsheet filled with the propulsive efficiency of the propeller calculations. It should be noted efficiency is directly related to the disk diameter and exit diameter. If the ratios are the same between two calculations, they will have the same efficiency. This was calculated to discover how efficient the propulsion of different sized propellers would work.

By Bernie Garcia

Rotational Velocity Equations

• These calculations describe the speed at which the propeller spins
• Involves number of revolutions and diameter
• Equations displayed below

Rotational Velocity Equation

• vr: Rotational velocity
• D: Diameter of propeller
• N: Number of revolutions
• Below is a spreadsheet filled with the rotational velocity of the propeller at different RPM values, which were also converted revolutions per second. The rotational velocity was found to discover how fast the propeller would spin at specific sizes.

Rotational Velocity 421 RPM Spreadsheet

Rotational Velocity 842 RPM Spreadsheet

Rotational Velocity 211 RPM Spreadsheet

By Bernie Garcia

Relative Rotation Efficiency

• These calculations describe the performance of the rotational properties of the propeller
• Involves behind the hull efficiency and open water efficiency
• Equations displayed below

Relative Rotation Efficiency (Includes other equations as well)

• Eta_o: Open water efficiency
• F: Thrust
• vo: Vehicle velocity
• vr: Rotational velocity
• Qo: Torque at open water test
• Q: Torque
• Eta_B: Behind hull efficiency
• Eta_R: Relative rotation efficiency
• Below is a spreadsheet filled with the relative rotation efficiency of the propeller. Along with behind the hull efficiency and the open water efficiency. It includes calculations of several equations. Some values were estimated due to research and because some values would be found through actual testing. The purpose of this calculation was to show if the rotational velocity was efficient for this type of propeller's conditions.

Behind Hull Efficiency Spreadsheet

Open Water Efficiency Spreadsheet

Relative Rotation Efficiency Spreadsheet

By Bernie Garcia

Hull Efficiency

• These calculations describe the efficiency of an entire vehicle if using one of our propeller designs
• Involves effective horsepower and the work done by the propeller thrust
• Equations displayed below

Relative Rotation Efficiency (Includes other equations as well)

• EHP: Effective horsepower
• Rt: Hull resistance
• vo: Vehicle velocity
• va: Propeller speed
• w: Wake
• Eta_H: Hull efficiency
• Below is a spreadsheet filled with the hull efficiency of the system if one our propeller designs would be used. It includes calculations of several equations. Some values were estimated due to research and because some values would be found through actual testing. The purpose of this calculation was to show if the boat/vehicle would operate well with this type of propeller.

Behind Hull Efficiency Spreadsheet

By Bernie Garcia
1. The file for all the calculations can be found here.
• Note: These calculations were created to show what types of efficiencies would occur in different propeller sizes and can be used for scaling. Our design wasn't based off the answers that appeared in these calculations. Our design for the propeller design was based off the size of the DC motor that was ordered, so that it could fit perfectly into it.
• Blacked out cells on the excel spreadsheets are to notify the reader that the value is constant for the specific variable; therefore it would be unnecessary to keep repeating the value for each cell.
• Note: The values for the propeller design are highlighted by yellow.

## Drawings, Schematics, Flow Charts, Simulations

#### Mechanical System Design

Preliminary Assembly

Front

Rear

Propeller with Inner Magnets and Shaft

Prop w/ Inner Magnets + Shaft

Motor

Motor

#### Mechanical System Parts Design

Preliminary Propeller Designs

5 bladed propeller design

3 bladed propeller design

4 bladed propeller design

Inverted propeller design

5 bladed propeller design sheet

3 bladed propeller design sheet

4 bladed propeller design sheet

Inverted propeller design sheet

Enclosure Designs

Enclosure Design 1

Enclosure Design 2

Enclosure Design 1 Sheet

Enclosure Design 2 Sheet

Solenoid Design

Solenoid

Solenoid Sheet

#### Drawings

Enclosure Design Drawing

Enclosure Drawings

#### Parts List

• DC motor
• Propeller
• Solenoid
• Rare Earth magnets (various sizes and shapes)
• Electromagnets
• Enclosure for propeller
• Enclosure for entire system
• Micro-controller (Beagle-bone)
• Power-boards

System Flowchart

### Solenoid Controller Schematic

Controller Schematic

PCB Design

Wiring Diagram

## Bill of Material (BOM)

PCB BOM

• Motor Construction
• Purchase motor
• “Off the shelf” design
• \$800 - \$1,200
• PCB Purchase and Construction/Assembly
• New Budget
• \$4,000 of allocated spending
• Funds spent to date: \$128.99
• BeagleBone Black Development Board
• \$61.16 (w/ tax)
• Misc. magnets for proof of concept

## Test Plans

#### Subsystem

1. Magnets: Stabilization (lateral, axial) of the magnets and the entire system, preventing the system from falling apart. This will also include a mock build.
2. Propeller: Flow simulation in SolidWorks will allow us to understand how the water or air will flow through the propeller and in what areas it will be disrupted or experience turbulence.
3. Motor: Use an encoder to measure RPM; hook up and see if it the motor spins.
4. Solenoids: Helmholtz coils will show if power runs through the solenoid.
5. Enclosure: A leakage test will show if the propeller is enclosed properly & see if the motor fits.
6. Coding: Check values, troubleshoot, and emulate the program to see if any errors occur or if the code runs.
7. Temperature: Use thermo-couples to see get temperature values.
8. Solenoid Controller: Verifying proper voltage output via multimeter, based on different inputs.
9. Power Supply: Verifying the proper voltage is being output.
• Note: At this moment the test plans for the entire system as one have not been entirely planned. Therefore the full plan with both subsystem and the entire system plans will be complete in the Detailed Design page.
• The test plans seem to cover all Engineering Requirements, but due to the overall system plans not being completed at this moment it's not necessarily prepared to account for leakage and the backup safe mode.

Engineering Requirements

Risk Assessment

Gantt Chart