P18241: Autonomous People Mover V
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Build & Test Prep

Table of Contents

Team Vision for Build & Test Prep Phase

The main team goal for this phase was to complete the remaining designs that were still open at the end of the Detailed Design phase of MSD I. Upon completion of these designs, a Critical Design Review was held to communicate the final designs to the customer.

During this phase, customer and engineering requirements were updated, and draft test plans were created.

Test Plan Summary

The customer and engineering requirements were updated to reflect changes in the overall design. The engineering requirements were also updated to include more measurable metrics.

The Customer and Engineering Requirements document can be found here: Customer & Engineering Requirements

Updated Customer Requirements

Updated Customer Requirements

Updated Customer Requirements

Updated Engineering Requirements

Updated Engineering Requirements

Updated Engineering Requirements

Instructions

  1. Ensure test plans are in place
  2. Ensure that all applicable test standards have been cited (e.g., ASTM)
  3. Ensure all ordered materials have been received
  4. Ensure team has space and equipment necessary to begin building and testing

Risk and Problem Tracking

The updated risks document for this phase can be found here: Build & Test Prep Risks

Camera

Curb Detection

Path Planning

Infrared Sensor Testing

IR Test Plan

IR Test Plan

Testing was performed on the RFD77402 loT 3D ToF Sensor to determine feasibility. The sensor was mounted to a cardboard box at 9", approximately the hight of where it would be on the cart, and measurements were taken in various settings. After testing the sensor outdoors, it was determined that this particular sensor would not be a viable option for the APM. The infrared sensor operates with a non-modulated wavelength of 850nm, which causes errors when used outside due to the spectrum of the sun interfering with the infrared receiver. For this reason, the furthers planned tests were not carried out due to the immediate failure of the sensor outdoors.

Spectrum of the Sun

Spectrum of the Sun

Outdoor Testing in Shade

This test involved placing the IR Sensor test setup in a shaded area outside. For this test, the test setup was placed about half of a meter away from a shaded brick wall. The results for this test were found to be fairly accurate measurements.
Shade Test Readings

Shade Test Readings

Shade Test Setup

Shade Test Setup

Outdoor Testing in Partial Light

The same test was repeated for lighter conditions, with the test setup kept about a meter away from the wall.
Partial Light Test Readings

Partial Light Test Readings

Partial Light Test Setup

Partial Light Test Setup

Outdoor Testing in Sunlight

The same test was repeated for cases in which the sensor is in an area affected by direct sunlight. The direct sunlight causes the sensor to output errors, such as a readings suggesting the sensor is further from objects than it actually is (causing the sensor readings to max out in most cases), or errors where no measurement can be made due to the sensor receiver being saturated.
Sensor Readings Showing Nothing Sensed and Saturated Readings

Sensor Readings Showing Nothing Sensed and Saturated Readings

Sunlight Test Setup

Sunlight Test Setup

Safezone Detection

Initial proof of concept has been created on a ROS testbench. Camera frames are successfully obtained from the USB camera and passed as input to our trained ENet model. The ENet output image shows a clear boundary between safe and unsafe driving regions. A new ENet model will be trained on our newly gathered dataset to improve segmentation accuracy in unforeseen camera frames.

The ENet output image is then warped to remove fish-eye distortion using intrinsic camera parameters found through camera calibration. The undistorted image is perspective mapped to the ground plane directly in front of the cart by utilizing the estimated extrinsic camera parameters. Once the camera mounting position is finalized the extrinsic parameters will be measured. The resulting perspective mapped image gives a bird's eye view of the area directly in front of the APM.

The final perspective mapped image is translated to a pcl::PointCloud object and published for use by other ROS nodes. This output format may be subject to change depending on future navigation work.

All steps in the safezone process have been compiled into a ROS package named "safezone."

In the below images the original camera frame can be seen in the "Original Frame" window, the ENet output in the "ENet Output Frame" window, the perspective mapped image in the "Perspective Mapped Frame" window, and the pointcloud output in the rviz window.

Safezone

Safezone

Safezone

Safezone

Safezone

Safezone

Camera Mount

For a weatherproof and secure camera mounting solution, a GoPro case was used as a housing for the camera. A camera mount was designed and fabricated in order to secure the camera in place inside of the GoPro case. Together, the GoPro case and internal camera mount create a weatherproof housing for the camera, while keeping the camera from moving around inside of the case.

The camera mount was 3D printed and must remain within 1% tolerance of nominal values in order to fit inside GoPro case.

The camera mount documentation can be found here: Camera Mount Drawing

GoPro Case

GoPro Case

Camera Mount Drawing

Camera Mount Drawing

Software Planning

A software diagram was created to show each sensor with corresponding ROS packages and overall software flow. The pre-processing stages for the camera are also shown, which are required before the camera system can publish meaningful information to ROS.
Software Diagram

Software Diagram

Image Segmentation and Perspective Mapping

Design Review Materials

Include links to:

Plans for next phase


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