P18391: Grinder Gizmo
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Systems Design

Table of Contents

Project Statement: Automated burger machine with custom imaging to reduce cost and attract customers

Team Vision for System-Level Design Phase

PRI: Katie Berus

Rev: 1

Date: 10/12

Planned Tasks:

• Research REST APIs

• Look into G-Code syntax

• Research Image Vectorization

• Research Possible Image Processing Solutions

• Survey existing products in auto food prep

• Survey existing products in food printing

• Research possible methods of heating up and storing ingredients

• Research commercial burger assembly

• Calculate heat transfer characteristics of burgers

• Research djang web app

• Research Python/Rasp.pi for low level libraries

• Seek additional funding from corporate sponsors and RIT

• Complete Functional decomposition of system

• Complete Process Flow mapping

• Benchmarking of other products

• Generate Design Modules/concepts

• Review Microcontrollers

• Create Systems Design

• Create Assembly Design

• Create Printing Design

• Create Heating Element design

• Test cooking methods

• Create drawing schematics

• Create State Diagrams

• Create Morph Table

• Generate Alternatives

• Refine Concepts

• Complete Feasibility

• Discuss technical capabilities needed

• Begin Test plan

Accomplished Tasks:

• Research Image Vectorization

• Research Possible Image Processing Solutions

• Survey existing products in auto food prep

• Research possible methods of heating up ingredients

• Research commercial burger assembly

• Calculate heat transfer characteristics of burgers

• Complete Functional decomposition of system

• Complete Process Flow mapping

• Benchmarking of other products

• Generate Design Modules/concepts

• Review Microcontrollers

• Create Systems Design

• Create Assembly Design

• Create Printing Design

• Create Heating Element design

• Test cooking methods

• Create drawing schematics

• Create Morph Table

• Generate Alternatives

• Refine Concepts

• Complete Feasibility

• Begin Test plan

Team Efficiency

Efficiency of Team

Functional Decomposition

PRI: Jacky Ho

Rev: 1

Date of Last Revision: 10/10/17

Functional Decomposition

Functional Decomposition

Sequence of operations

Sequence of operations

Functional Analysis

Functional Analysis

Functional Decomposition Live Document:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1vXiDWpmb6coo9N8yIcXb3rVpzyUgW2mjxlH8AmEe4IY/edit?usp=sharing

Benchmarking

PRI: Scott Eisele

Date of last revision: 10/11/17

Comparison to Non-Automated Process

For preliminary benchmarking, our team conducted a quick survey of how long it takes to get a burger at a typical fast food chain restaurant. This enabled us to establish a baseline for how fast our device would need to operate, helping to refine requirement ER1.

The table below demonstrates the results of our survey. All times are the average of three orders, taken immediately after each other.

Fast Food Chain Time Spent in Line Time to Order Time to Cook Food Total Time
McDonald's 2:37 0:27 1:34 4:35
Burger King 1:15 0:23 1:49 3:47
Wendy's 1:48 0:30 1:47 4:08

Comparison to Existing Automation

Given the large size of the fast food industry, other attempts have been made at automating the production of fast food hamburgers. Our research found three successful existing devices which assist in the production of fast food hamburgers.

Robotic Burger Assembly Video

Articulating robots have been programmed to successfully assembly burgers from already cooked ingredients, as seen in this video of an Epson robot assembling a cheeseburger at a tech fair.

Flippy Burger Bot Video

Flippy is a robot which helps monitor the cooking progress of burgers on a grill, and automatically flip them as necessary. Flippy also helps remove the burgers from the grill. Flippy takes the form of an articulating arm with a specialized burger-flipping claw. "Flippy" is however, unable to assist in the assembly process.

Momentum Machines Site

A startup called "Momentum Machines" has begun testing a device which can fully cook and assemble burgers from raw ingredients, even bagging them as they exit the device. Their device makes gourmet burgers from freshly ground beef, extruding the beef as needed. The device then pushes them through an oven to cook them. Their work serves as a sort of baseline of what our device should be capable of doing, with the addition of bun-imaging and tighter cost and space constraints.

Momentum Machines Prototype Image

Momentum Machines Prototype Image

Concept Development

PRI: Katie Berus

Rev: 1

Date: 10/12

Burger Assembly Concepts

Burger Assembly Concepts

Image Creation Concepts

Image Creation Concepts

Compilation of Concepts with pictures

Live Document

Feasibility: Prototyping, Analysis, Simulation

To test the feasibility of the various concepts in our morphological table, proof of concept testing was performed on various burger cooking methods and image generation methods. The burger patties and buns used for the testing were provided by the RITZ, and were the standard patties and buns which they use on a daily basis.

Burger Cooking Method Testing

Three techniques were tested in our burger cooking test. These methods are outlined in the table below:

Cooking Method Description Initial Predictions
Two-Sided Press Two heated surfaces press into the burger from either side Fast cook time & high power consumption
One-Sided Press The burger is placed on a hot surface, then flipped halfway through cooking Medium power consumption & automated flip would be challenging
Direct Electrocution Two electrodes are placed on either side of the patty, to cook the patty with the electric current Uncertain cook time & power consumption

The three variables we tested for were total cook time, energy consumption, and preheat time. All burgers were cooked to approximately 170 deg Farhenheit, as per industry health standards. The table below demonstrates the results across the various cooking methods:

Cooking Method Cook Time Preheat Time Total Power Consumption Other Comments
Two-Sided Press 2:13 3:30 0.040 kWh Quick grease buildup
One-Sided Press 11:02 3:30 0.065 kWh Flip at 3:30
Direct Electrocution 5:00 0:00 0.020 kWh Horrible smell

The linked video below shows the outcome of our "electrocution" method test: Electrocution Test Video

Image Generation Testing

To test the capabilities of our various image generation methods, we tested them by hand to establish a baseline for the effectiveness. The table below describes the various methods tested:

Imaging Method Description Initial Predictions
Laser Etching Use a laser to burn the image into the top of the bun. Fast & effective
Soldering Iron Use a soldering iron to burn the image into the top of the bun. Potential to damage bun
Butane Torch Use a butane torch to burn the image into the top of the bun. Potential to burn bun excessively
Adhesive & Sesame Seeds Apply an adhesive layer to the top of the bun, then sprinkle sesame seeds onto the adhesive. Excess seeds will fall off, but seeds will stick where the adhesive is placed. Adhesive recipe may be complex
Flammable Liquid (Alcohol) Drip alcohol onto the top of the bun in the desired pattern, then ignite to burn the image into the top of the bun. Alcohol may absorb into bun
Flammable Liquid (Oil) Drip oil onto the top of the bun in the desired pattern, then ignite to burn the image into the top of the bun. Oil may absorb into bun
Food-Safe Marker Use a food safe marker to draw the image on top of the bun. Marker may be off-putting
Knife Use a knife to carve the image into the bun. Potential to damage bun

The results of our testing are demonstrated in the table below:

Imaging Method Time to complete [s] Other comments
Laser Etching 192 Poor image contrast, laser could not focus
Soldering Iron 26 High contrast, high resolution image
Butane Torch 18 Poor resolution, surrounding areas of bun were burned
Adhesive & Sesame Seeds 15 Good image contrast, low resolution
Flammable Liquid (Alcohol) N/a Did not work
Flammable Liquid (Oil) N/a Did not work
Food-Safe Marker N/a Did not work
Knife 14 Damaged bun
Bun Imaging Test Via Laser Etching

Bun Imaging Test Via Laser Etching

Bun Imaging Test Via Propane Torch

Bun Imaging Test Via Propane Torch

Bun Imaging Test Via Sesame Seeds

Bun Imaging Test Via Sesame Seeds

Bun Imaging Test Via Soldering Iron

Bun Imaging Test Via Soldering Iron

Engineering Analysis

PRI: Zach Gastin

Rev: 1

Date: 10/12/17

Cook Hamburger Patty

Two-sided conduction heater: This was tested by using a standard George Foreman grill as an empirical model. Power consumption was measured through a Kill-A-Watt device while time to reach an internal temperature of 170°F was recorded. When compared to similar testing of alternative methods, such as one-sided conduction and electrical resistance heating, this was shown to be the fastest, efficient and maintained a high level of safety.

Prototype: measure internal temperature of burger with meat thermometer

Prototype: Measure entire power consumption with Kill-O-Watt

Place Top and Bottom Buns

Vacuum pickup. This method is chosen by thought model. Hamburger buns are lightweight, soft, and are not uniform. Vacuum is an industry standard for pick and place operations. By having a large surface the vacuum chuck will apply low pressure and prevent deformation of the bun, and allow lifting force to be generated when the shape is irregular. This assumption will be tested by attempting to lift hamburger buns with standard vacuum systems. Bun deformation will be recorded as well as repeatability.

Measure the center point of each ingredient

Image Generation

Heated Element: This was tested by using a soldering iron to sketch an image on a hamburger bun. When tested against other proposed methods, this method was chosen for line width, speed and image appeal. This testing confirmed that using a heated element to toast the top of the bun can generate a discernible image.

Prototype: Measure final designs

Prototype: Measure time of printing

Check Placement of printer Make sure printer enclosure is clear

Assembly Location

Turntable. Turntable will be used to locate hamburger at each stage of assembly. This is a standard solution.

Run models with individual times Once prototype complete: time entire process

Measure the center point of each ingredient

Estimate burger rate by time for each step Prototype: Monitor burgers output for selected time

Store Solid Ingredients

Water-cooled hoppers: Cooling water will be supplied through tubing wrapped around hoppers after being sent through a chiller. Food needs to be stored at or below 45°F. This will be modeled to determine the cooling capacity needed for the hoppers.

Estimate temperature with calculations Prototype: Monitor temperature variation with thermocouple

Place Solid Ingredients

Drop from hoppers: This is a standard solution.

Weigh toppings with scale

Place Liquid Ingredients

Syringe Dispenser: This is a standard solution.

Weigh toppings with scale

Measure Hopper Ingredient Levels

Rotary Paddle Bin Level Sensor: This is an industry standard solution.

Place Cooked Patty on Assembly

Push with spatula onto bottom bun: This is a standard solution.

Measure the center point of each ingredient

Receive Customer Orders

Web Interface: This is a standard Solution

Put in many different orders to the system and check for correctness

Estimate with calculations Complete testing with live subjects Prototype: Monitor and measure interaction time

Estimate with calculations Prototype: Measure time

Estimate with calculations Prototype: Measure time

Estimate with calculations

Estimate with calculations Prototype: Measure time

Estimate with calculations Prototype: Check with many different tickets

Live Document

Morphological Chart and Concept Selection

PRI: Scott Eisele

Rev: 1

Date of Last Revision: 10/11/17

To generate a sufficiently organized morphological chart, we divided up the functional requirements into three categories: Burger Assembly, Image Generation, and Order Processing. These three categories were our primary functional branches from our functional decomposition.

Burger Assembly Morphological Chart

Burger Assembly Morphological Chart

Image Generation Morphological Chart

Image Generation Morphological Chart

Order Processing Morphological Chart

Order Processing Morphological Chart

Morphological Chart Live Document:

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1E-VKw0tlHWRIkOXbSTKH_SoBmcTZHd-27s4BqQV0W3A/edit?usp=sharing

Concept Selection

PRI: Katie Berus

Rev: 1

Date: 10/12

Selection Criteria

• Fit together o Same power source o Input/Output Smooth

• Safety o For Building o For Use

• Cost

• Easy to Construct

• Size

• Time to Build

• Time to Make/Function

• Energy Consumption

• Noise

• Aesthetics

• Cleanability

• Maintainability

• Food safe

• Improvability/Updateable

• Controllable

Pugh Charts

Burger Assembly

Image Creation

Live Document

Systems Architecture

PRI: Murali Srinivasan

Rev: 1

Date: 10/13

Inputs and Source

  1. Engineering Requirements.
  2. Functional Decomposition.
  3. Concept Development.
 High Level Subsystems

High Level Subsystems

System Architecture

System Architecture

Outputs and Destination

  1. High level description of the total system that support concept selection.
  2. Interface definition for subsystem design.

Designs and Flowcharts

Bun Etcher

Bun Etcher Design

Bun Etcher Design

XY Table Design

XY Table Design

Bun Etcher Control Logic

Bun Etcher Control Logic

Burger Cooker

Burger Cooker Design

Burger Cooker Design

Burger Cooker Control Logic

Burger Cooker Control Logic

Burger Assembler

Rotating Table Design

Rotating Table Design

Rotating Table Control Logic

Rotating Table Control Logic

Website

Landing Page

Landing Page

Menu

Menu

Build Your Own Burger

Build Your Own Burger

Risk Assessment

PRI: Jacky Ho

Rev: 3

Date of Last Revision: 10/10/17

Risk Indes and Prediction Chart

Risk Indes and Prediction Chart

Revision 1 2 3 4 5 6
Risk Index 99 164 157 - - -
Prediction 99 150 140 120 100 100
Risk List

Risk List

Risk Management Live Document:

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1G1DHFGDewzOE4EL2j9MnhVlVFrKn9biJ1Xu1EeMETxc/edit?usp=sharing

Design Review Materials

Systems Level Design Review Presentation Live Document

Agenda

Plans for next phase

PRI: Katie Berus

Rev: 1

Date: 10/12

Phase 3 Plan

Phase 3 Plan

PDF Project Plan


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