P18485: Biochar Concrete Roofing Tile Manufacturing and Complete Roof System
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Detailed Design

Table of Contents

For the Detailed Design Phase, any related content to this node will be in the Detailed Design Documents.

Team Vision for Detailed Design Phase

Phase Objectives:

In this phase the team would like to accomplish these tasks:

Individual tasks:

In this phase, the team has divided these goals into these themes and assignments:

Preliminary Detailed Design Re-Cap and Progress Report

Re-Cap of Preliminary Detailed Design

For those that were unable to attend the presentation for the the Preliminary Design Review on Monday November 13th, click HERE for a link to our EDGE page. Some of the major decisions and accomplishments from this phase and review were:

Updates

Since our last review, the team has been working on the tile design, further work on the sample mold and DOE, as well as working on progressing/incorporating the top tile into the design process. Below are a list of some updates to keep an eye out for before the Detailed Design Review:

The actual team progress report will also be posted HERE.

Normal Tile Design

During the preliminary detailed design phase, a new profile for the tile was proposed that allowed for better dimensioning of the tiles. This design was further improved during the detailed design phase by designing the tiles to stack better. Originally this idea resulted in tiles that were too thin, but this was corrected by thickening certain portions of the profile and rounding off sharp corners in order to improve the overall strength of the tiles. The changes to the profile design can be seen in the figure below.

Tile Comparisons

 Tile Comparisons

Tile Comparisons

Final Tile Drawings

The new profile was also designed with ease of construction in mind, by referencing the bottom surface of the tile for dimensions as much as possible and using round, easy-to-manage numbers for these dimensions. The final schematic for this design of the tile is shown in the figure below.
 Final Tile Drawing

Final Tile Drawing

Simulation

In order to confirm that the new design for the tile would be capable of meeting engineer and customer requirements, a stress analysis was conducted using PTC Creo CAD software. Our research has shown that normal concrete typically has a maximum tensile stress of between 400 and 700 psi. The simulation showed that the maximum principal stress experienced by the tile is 391 psi. Testing of our concrete samples will allow us to determine if this is an acceptable metric, or if we will need to further change the design of the tile to allow for decreased loads.
 Stress Analysis

Stress Analysis

New Features

Tile Mold

To create our tiles, we plan to create vacuum-formed molds into which we will place the concrete and allow it to cure. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential size and shape of the mold, models were made in PTC Creo. Two different ideas for mold design were explored.

2 Piece Mold

The 2 piece mold consists of a top and bottom piece that are designed to fit into one another as shown in the figures below.
 2 Piece Mold

2 Piece Mold

 2 Piece Mold

2 Piece Mold

The problems with this design for the mold is that it requires two different parts for each tile, is not easy to transport, and doesn't stack very well.

1 Piece Mold

In order to solve the problems presented by the two-piece mold, a new, stackable designed was proposed.
 1 Piece Mold

1 Piece Mold

This new design of the mold only requires one mold per tile, excluding the bottom tile, is easily stackable, and is slightly easier to transport due to this stackability. The problem with this design is that it does not account for the nubs at the bottom of the tiles, which are critical to mounting the tiles on the roofs, and stacking too many tiles on top of each other could lead to the bottom tiles being too thin. These designs will be further explored.

Rapid Prototyping

3D Printing was used as means of rapid Prototyping. The team decided that these prototypes can be used to exemplify the interaction of the tiles, prior to their creation. Team Member Dan was able to print multiple iterations of the tile design, so that stakeholders can compare in a visual and tactile way.
 3d prints of new tiles

3d prints of new tiles

3d prints of old tiles

3d prints of old tiles

3d printed scaffold for tiles

3d printed scaffold for tiles

Top Tile Design

This section covers the addition of the Top Tile Design. The team, tasked with the creation of the entire roofing system, is responsible for creating a top tile to finish off the complete roof design. The following sub-sections explain the purpose, design and choices behind the team's final design for the top tile. As a note, in previous iterations, there was no inclusion of the top tile. This year's team found it a crucial part of the roofing system to complete.

Systems Design for Top Tile

In order to decide what design we wanted for the top tile, a morphological chart was constructed and discussed.
 Morphological Chart for Top Tile Design

Morphological Chart for Top Tile Design

We ended up choosing the simplest and most proven design: The triangular, overlapping tile with mortar applied to fill in the gaps on the roof. The shape of this tile was based on the shape of Ricardo's top tiles, and the overlapping method of installation is based on the way clay tile roofs are constructed.

Choices for Top Tile

This was the final choices for the Top Tile Design:

 Final Solution

Final Solution

Top Tile in Creo

The design for the top tile was modeled in PTC Creo in order to see the way it would interact with the other tiles on the roof, and to get an idea of what it would look like.

 top tile

top tile

 Top Tile from Front

Top Tile from Front

 Top Tile From Side

Top Tile From Side

Manufacturing Process

Changes

The Process is almost identical, however there is the incorporation of a second production line. This would use mostly the same equipment, however the shaping and molding steps would be unique to eat tile type.

For each roofing system, there is only a need of 8 top tiles, and therefore, in terms of load, only 1 top tile is needed per 28 other tiles. This would mean that there would be much less mold and line infrastructure. Lines can be run once a week to meet weekly demand, or on a daily basis.

Updated Process Map

 Updated Process Map

Updated Process Map

Manufacturing Bill of Materials

Below is the bill of materials for the manufacturing process with each process step separated into its own category. This allowed the team to dive into detail about what would be needed at each process step specifically.
 Manufacturing BOM

Manufacturing BOM

= Manufacturing plan for MSD II

-Design the optimal flow & layout for the system materials people and information

-Find a building that will achieve needs of the manufacturing system (shape,size, electricity, water, easy access from transport)

-Acquire a business student onto the team or look into the business side of the project and set up a task list that would be completed to establish the tile manufacturing business

-Determine or estimate a demand and determine a takt time (add buffer)

-Estimate the cost of buying equipment for manufacturing needs

-Determine number of workers needed

-Create standard work for processes

-Determine ideal inventory for each material

Sample Creation and Test Plans

During this phase, the team was able to create the samples discussed in the DOE plans from last semester.

Purpose

The purpose of these samples is to be able to test the properties outlined in the DOE. AS a recap, these are the factors and levels being tested.
 Variables and Levels

Variables and Levels

Procedure

Prior to creating the samples, the team created a testing procedure for creating samples. This procedure was followed to create all 27 samples. This procedure can be found HERE, and the following notes discuss the basic procedure followed: Sample Creation
  1. Portion the correct amount of: Pumice, Sand, and Cement
  2. Mix the proportioned amounts together, adding water to the mixture
  3. Clean surface (acrylic) of mold and Coat the insides of each sample mold cell with mineral oil
  4. Fill 2 rows of the sample cells with the concrete mix, following the requirements of the DOE
  5. Portion the correct amount of plastic
  6. Add plastic shreds to the remaining third of the mixture and fill the remaining row of sample cells with mix
  7. Move Mold to the Shaker table
  8. Shake Mold on Shaker table for 1 minute OR until the pumice has visibly risen to the top and cement has sunk to the bottom
  9. Move Mold to an open space in lab to dry

Sample Removal

  1. Let sit for 24 hours
  2. After 24 hours, remove Acrylic bottom and flip mold.
  3. Remove all samples by pushing evenly on all parts of the sample.
  4. Take the specified samples to be cured in the appropriate ways: In the Water tub in the lab ,Wrapped in plastic, or Air Drying in the lab
  5. Remove samples after specified amount of time from their curing environment and prep for testing.
A document for our testing can also be found here.

Samples and Pictures

 Sifting Pumice

Sifting Pumice

 Measuring the Pumice Density

Measuring the Pumice Density

 Weighing Plastic String for Samples

Weighing Plastic String for Samples

 Mixing Pumice, Sand, and Cement

Mixing Pumice, Sand, and Cement

 First Set of Samples Poured on 12/4/2017

First Set of Samples Poured on 12/4/2017

Lessons Learned

During the process, the team was able to make a "lessons learned" log, to improve each consecutive sample creation, or for future testing. Below is an example of those lessons:
 Lessons Learned During Sample Creation

Lessons Learned During Sample Creation

Testing

To test the highest tensile stress in the specimens, we will be utilizing ASTM Standard C293 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam With Center-Point Loading). This is the same testing standard P17485 used. The logic for going with a tensile test as opposed to a compression test is because of the nature of the tile assembly. With the way the tiles are assembled and supported on the roof, the tiles will be in tension on the bottom surface. This is the anticipated failure mode.

Predictions from Literature or Observations

This subsection contains any predictions created by the team, in terms of how the results from our future tests will show:

Test Roof Plans

Some of the engineering requirements are mapped to features of the assembled roof. To test that our roof meets those requirements, we need to construct a test roof made of tiles and a test roof made of zinc sheets. Since the zinc sheets are what are currently being used, we want to show that our roof has more benefits than a zinc roof.

Frame

 Test Roof Frame

Test Roof Frame

Full Test Roof

 Full Test Roof

Full Test Roof

Budget

 Test Roof Budget

Test Roof Budget

Tests

Below are the tests that are going to be performed on both the tile roof and zinc roof.
  1. Loudness Test
  2. Solar Gain Test
  3. Waterproof Test
  4. Wind Resistance Test

Recap of Testing

To satisfy all Engineering Requirements, we need to be able to test against those requirements. Below are the respective tests for each Engineering Requirement. It is worth noting that the "Bottle String Width" and "Bottle String Length" requirements are contingent about the specimen testing that will be conducted at the beginning of MSD II.
 Test Plans Mapped to Engineering Requirements

Test Plans Mapped to Engineering Requirements

Risk Assessment

 Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment

Besides the Risks that were present in this phase, in this sub-section, the team compares our current risk assessment to our original, answering these questions:

A lot of our risks are long-term risks that can be closed out after testing and creation of roof tiles. Risks that have to do with the manufacturing process have been partially completed such as quality, but until we have a concrete process, mix, and needed equipment they cannot be closed.

Yes every risk has an action to minimize the risks and team members are consciously making decisions around these risks.

The only the risks that could be manifested as problems would be that there are not be a demand for the new tiles in Nicaragua, the testing of samples does not lead in a definitive direction, and quality of tiles is not maintained.

The risk assessment started off with solely the tile, the installation process, and the manufacturing process and then evolved into more about our teams risks (manufacturing/installation→use/testing). I learned to think about the entire project instead of the final product.

Risk Assessment for MSD II

This risk assessment looks into the biggest possible problems that can occur during MSD II

MSD II risk assessment

Communications

These individuals were contacted ....

Tile Company

Company Logo

Company Logo

While conducting research on pumice tile manufacturing processes, our team discovered the existence of a company called Ecosur, which we believe is the company for which Ricardo works. This company provides a full startup package for tile manufacturing for a total of 4,745 USD plus shipping. This package comes with everything you might need to start the production, including plastic sheets, 200 molds, spare parts, trowel for the roman tiles and verge/ridge tiles. This company also sells shakers and mixers. This company seems like it would be very helpful to the goals of 4Walls and Enlace to set up a tile manufacturing business, but it opens up questions of what area of this process we would be best suited to improve upon. We would like to discuss this further at the conclusion of our presentation.

Hess Pumice

 Company Logo

Company Logo

While searching for more information about the manufacture of concrete pumice, we encountered a company called Hess Pumice that provides a lot of information about this topic and sells pumice in various standardized sizes. They also stated that they have given samples and helped various schools with the NCCC (National Concrete Canoe Competition). We contacted Joel Blackner and Mike Hess Jr. of Hess pumice with questions about our mix design and whether they would be able to provide us samples. They agreed to send us free samples if we pay for shipping and gave us helpful advice about pumice as a pozzolan.

Subsystem Completion Table Updates

Below are the Subsystems Completion tables for Business and Tile end of the project. Looking at these tables, the team can see where it is on each of the subsystems that need to be focused on and completed: Business
Business Subsystem

Business Subsystem

Tile
Tile Subsystem

Tile Subsystem

Plans for next phase

Planned Action Items in MSD I, we didn't finish:

The team will focus on these deliverables in MSD II:

Below is a Gantt chart for our plan.

 Gantt Chart for Project Planning

Gantt Chart for Project Planning

By Month Planning:

Our Vision of the Imagine RIT exhibit:

Individual Plans

Connor's Three Week plan

Derick's 3 week plan

Dan's 3 week plan

Matt's MSD II Plan


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