P18485: Biochar Concrete Roofing Tile Manufacturing and Complete Roof System
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Preliminary Detailed Design

Table of Contents

In the Preliminary Detailed Design, the team ....

Documents referenced in this phase are located in the Detailed Design Documents folder.

Team Vision for Preliminary Detailed Design Phase

Phase Objectives:

In this phase the team would like to accomplish these tasks:

Individual tasks:

In this phase, the team has divided these goals into these themes and assignments:

Systems Design Re-Cap

Updated Concept Design

Below is an outline of the Updated concept from the last phase, will all the steps involved:
 Updated Concept

Updated Concept

Design of Experiments

Purpose

The Design of Experiments, or DOE, approach is a simple way to understand the effect of many regressor variables on a wanted response variable. This could drive down the cost of testing, since many variables are being tested together, rather than each variable being independently tested. The formula used for simple DOEs is as follows:

m^k = number of samples

where:

m = number of levels,

k = number of variables/factors

Along with variables, each variable has a number of levels, that can be tested. An example of this would be when looking at the variable speed, you may have three levels, low, medium, high.

Methods

The team used a simple Design of Experiments approach by first brainstorming the many factors that would be considered variables in our experiment. In this DOE our response variable is Strength. After variables are brainstormed, each was researched to see if there was already some data, or some conclusions out there to avoid over testing. Below is a list of the original variables brainstormed:

After some consideration, here are the variables that were used in the final DOE plan:

Results

The team ended up with 3 variables, each with 3 variables. This means, according to the formula, m^k tests need to be run, therefore (3)^(3) = 27 samples need to be created. Here are our variables and levels color coded:
 Variables and Levels

Variables and Levels

For the ratio of aggregate, there mix levels were chosen, in relation to Ricardo’s mix ratio, shown below:

 Ratios Explained

Ratios Explained

The samples will be created as such, with a mold that can hold 9 samples each, over three days, each day having a aggregate mix, either high, equal to, or low:

 Day 1 Samples

Day 1 Samples

 Day 2 Samples

Day 2 Samples

 Day 3 Samples

Day 3 Samples

Plan

Our plan is to choose three days that members can pour concrete for, and begin as soon as all materials have arrived. In the next section, the process from creating the mold will be explained.

Feasibility: Prototyping, Analysis, Simulation

Concrete Test Sample Mold

Based on the Design of Experiments analysis, a 3X3 mold would be most efficient to provide the samples needed. The wood mold was created using information for the previous team, P17485. The Acrylic Backboard was added based on their feedback from using just the wood mold. The Acrylic holds the wood mold so it can be placed on the shaker table. The board also forms a smooth surface on one side of the samples (similar to what we hope to achieve with full tiles) and it helps prevent leakage.
 Specimen Wood Mold

Specimen Wood Mold

The drawing for the wood mold can be found here.

 Specimen with Acrylic Backboard

Specimen with Acrylic Backboard

How wood mold fits into Acrylic Backboard

How wood mold fits into Acrylic Backboard

The drawing for the Acrylic Backboard can be found here.

Tile Weight

Higher Ratio Tile Weight

Higher Ratio Tile Weight

Equal Ratio Tile Weight

Equal Ratio Tile Weight

Lower Ratio Tile Weight

Lower Ratio Tile Weight

Drawings, Schematics, Flow Charts, Simulations

In order to improve on the manufacturability of the tiles, a new tile was designed based on the previous team's design, but with more intuitive dimensions that were easier to follow. These dimensions were based on referencing an imaginary line that passes through the center of the tile. The dimensions of the new tile design are shown in the figure below.
 Tile Schematic

Tile Schematic

This new tile design was then modeled to show how it would appear when mounted on the test roof rig.
 Test Roof Model without Top Tile

Test Roof Model without Top Tile

Tile Mold

We plan to use the vacuum former in the Construct to create molds for our tiles out of ABS plastic. These molds will have a top and a bottom mold, but the point at which these molds should split has yet to be determined. To explore these possibilities, as well as to see what the finished mold may look like, a model was created in PTC Creo.
 Model of Vacuum-Formed Mold

Model of Vacuum-Formed Mold

In order to construct these molds, we will need to take the following steps.
  1. Consult Mike Buffalin in the Construct about availability and recommendations
  2. Design and create drawing of tile profile
  3. Buy or obtain materials
    1. Thin plywood
    2. At least 22x17 inch piece of craft foam
    3. Bondo sealant
    4. Vacuum forming plastic
  4. Laser cut plywood to create stencil
  5. Use stencil to cut tile shape out of craft foam
  6. Add foam tile nubs
  7. Vacuum form top and bottom halves of mold
  8. Cut off tops of nubs for filling

Pumice Grinder

Part of the process for manufacturing involves grinding the pumice to the proper size. Our team has explored the following options for accomplishing this.
 Ideas for Pumice Grinder

Ideas for Pumice Grinder

Of these ideas, we preferred the rotating ball mill idea. We have designed a prototype for a small ball mill that we could use for testing. This design would potentially be scaled up to be constructed in Nicaragua.
 Front of Ball Mill Grinder

Front of Ball Mill Grinder

 Bottom of Ball Mill Grinder

Bottom of Ball Mill Grinder

 Ball Mill Grinder

Ball Mill Grinder

Additionally, our team has been weighing the possibility of purchasing the crusher and other manufacturing equipment that was used at the pumice tile plant in Nicaragua. Buying this equipment would help us to avoid scope creep and allow us to concentrate our focus more. We are in the process of gathering more information in order to make a decision between creating the ball mill and buying equipment.

Simio Model

Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing Process

Workstation Details

Workstation Details

Start & End Times

Start & End Times

Results

Results

Test Plans

ASTM Grant Application

Applied for an ASTM Grant worth at least $500. The requirements for this grant were to show how we planned to used ASTM in our testing and once the project is complete, we agreed to submit a final paper.

Here is the submitted application and abstract.

Test Plans Mapped to Engineering Requirements

 Test Plans by Engineering Requirements

Test Plans by Engineering Requirements

 ASTM Standards Deescriptions

ASTM Standards Deescriptions

Test Procedures Used by P17485

Design and Flowcharts

 Updated Flowchart

Updated Flowchart

Risk Assessment

Updated Risks

Updated Risks

Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance

Subsystem Completion Tables

 Manufacturing Subsystem Table

Manufacturing Subsystem Table

 Tile Subsystem Table

Tile Subsystem Table

Plans for next phase

Below is the team's plan for the next phase:

 3 week plan

3 week plan

This phase focuses on:

Individual Plans

Connor's 3 week plan

Derick's 3 week plan

Dan's 3 week plan Dan's Gantt Chart

Matt's 3 week Plan


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