P19667: Accordion Valve Manufacture
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Build & Test Prep

Table of Contents

Objective Statement

Manufacturing system to produce reed valves for accordion restorations by Scott Bellinger.

Team Vision for Build & Test Prep Phase

What did your team plan to do during this phase?
  1. Planned on completing the CAD modeling
  2. Verify electrical components function as expected
  3. Begin drafting/writing the ladder logic code

What did your team actually accomplish during this phase?

  1. Clarified team roles and expectations with our customer and new team member
  2. Nearly complete in the CAD models
  3. Test plans
  4. DOE for plastic testing
  5. Looked into HALT testing
  6. Proved that the life span of plastic isn’t a risk, began peel testing welded region.
  7. Work instructions for Punch and Cut
  8. Started air diagram along with pressure and size calculations for valves and lines
  9. PLC and all input/output cards tested with everything functioning correctly. The correct software has been installed and now we only need software for HMI programming. This will be a 30 day free trial closer to imagine. Also tested hall effect sensors and relays for 120 VAC outputs, everything works correctly so far. We have constructed some ladder logic for Feeder station 1 it can be seen below.

Lessons Learned in MSD I

Design

The dial layout was changed only slightly, adding another 6.35[mm] station to the dial instead of just leaving it blank. For this change, 4 more custom nests will need to be fabricated and the code will need to be tweaked slightly. However, this will also double the 6.35[mm] throughput.

Indexing Dial Layout Rev. 3

Indexing Dial Layout Rev. 3

The system design has gone through several revisions since the DDR.

S01- System Interface : Pre-approval revision S02- Reed Plate: Approved S03- Indexing Dial: In final revision/approval process

S04- Material Feeding:In final revision/approval process

S05-Fusing: In final revision/approval process

S06- Punch and cut: Approved

S07- Test and Collect: Removed from Scope

S08- Pick and Place: Approved

Below are screenshots of the current assembly. For now it is broken into a few pieces since it is hard to combine all the files into one assembly. However, The Dial Plate with all the Pick & Places along with the Fusing Station is visible. The Material Feeder that is attached to the Punch & Cut will be attached to two of the Pick & Places in the future, based on our current design. The Fusing Station has a stand-in piece for the Soldering Iron that we will use for the final assembly. However the dimensions are correct and will accommodate the Soldering Iron.
Dial Plate, Pick and Places, and Fusing Station

Dial Plate, Pick and Places, and Fusing Station

Pick & Place

Pick & Place

Material Feed and Punch & Cut

Material Feed and Punch & Cut

Lessons Learned

  1. CAD modeling remotely over break was a hassle and quite complicated.
  2. Splitting up the subsystems proved to be hard at times when conversing about dimensions this specific.
  3. Making sure we are all using the same version of software.
  4. Make sure you model the design in a way that it is easily editable.

Procurement

The bill of material has not changed too much since the last review. This is mainly because our subsystems are just being approved now and purchasing before approval was too risky with the budget projections we currently have. Therefore, later this week the CAD package BOM will be compared to the one shown below and many more parts will be ordered. We currently have 20% of the BOM below ordered. However, please see the Detailed Design page for the full BOM of donated parts we have already acquired.

Bill of Material - Purchase

Bill of Material - Purchase

Lessons Learned: Through this process the team learned that cost adds up fast and without the major donations from Calvary and PMD, as well as Scott buying several components for us, making it his far with this design would not have been possible. Secondly, we learned working through RIT's PICS system slows down the procurement procedure a bit, therefore we needed to allow for more time in our schedule.

Software Development

Below is the ladder logic code for the Feeder1 station

Latter Logic Pt.1

Latter Logic Pt.1

Latter Logic Pt.2

Latter Logic Pt.2

Latter Logic Pt.3

Latter Logic Pt.3

Timing Diagram

Timing Diagram

User Interface Draft

User Interface Draft

Lessons Learned

Try to keep the design simple as more I/Os complicate the project and also increase cost as more sensors, motors, and other forms of output devices are needed. Also verify correct software is installed and start testing devices sooner.

Assembly Process

Below is a sample of the Pick & Place Work Instructions:

Pick & Place Work Instructions Pt.1

Pick & Place Work Instructions Pt.1

Pick & Place Work Instructions Pt.2

Pick & Place Work Instructions Pt.2

Pick & Place Work Instructions Pt.3

Pick & Place Work Instructions Pt.3

Test Plan Summary

Product Test Plans

Based of of the Engineering Requirements outlined at the beginning of the project, we developed Master Test Plan to declare whether or not our final product meets these guidelines. These refer to the safety and usability of the manufacturing system itself, as well as the functionality of the produced reed valves. This set of test plans will only be used to test the final outcomes from our project.

Subsystem Test Plans

To have continuous testing for the manufacture and build phase, the System Test Plan were written up. These clearly identify how each subsystem should work independently from one another. This way, as each part is manufactured and verified to be correct, an individual can assemble one subsystem, connect it to the HMI and PLC to ensure that it functions properly. This breaks down the build and test phase into manageable subsections so we can troubleshoot specific problems as they arise, rather than putting everything together in the entire system and testing from there.

Parts Verification

To breakdown the subsystem testing even further the Parts Verification sheet was created to make sure that every ordered and manufactured part is exactly correct. When each part is finished from the machine shop, or comes in from being ordered, this sheet links to the CAD drawings for the required specifications. This is necessary for the upcoming phase because each subsystem is built from the parts in these CAD drawings, so it is imperative that we verify the correctness at the beginning to minimize possible errors that could occur

Lessons Learned

Finishing these test plans was crucial for this phase because it gives us outlines, dates, and what to expect for next phase. It also broke testing as a whole down to more manageable tasks that we can check as we go, rather than testing everything all at once at the end. This will maximize the time we have to build by minimizing errors that we will inevitably have to deal with up front .

Plastics Testing

Failure Modes

Not Welded: If temperature or duration is not enough to raise temperature of all layers into the Tg range, then no bonding occurs. Layers may stick together but will not withstand a 0.25 lb force.

Not Fusing - Failure Mode

Not Fusing - Failure Mode

Warped: If heating element is too hot, the length of the layer is heated close to the Tg value, becomes rubbery, and warps. Then deflection and sealing will be impacted.

Melting - Failure Mode

Melting - Failure Mode

Melted: If temperature or duration is too long the layers surpass the Tg range and begin to deteriorate.

Warped Layers - Failure Mode

Warped Layers - Failure Mode

Fusion Testing

The graph below shows the results of the plastics testing conducted to define the best fusion conditions. It can be seen that as the temperature increases, the “Y” or quality goes down. As time increases, quality also goes up. Pressure does not appear to make a huge impact. This means you will try to minimize heat and increase exposure time. This output is using JMP and I used an ordinal logistic regression to fit a model to the 3x3 full factorial DOE. Ordinal logistic just means that the response is categorical and the order matters, hence our 1-5 rating scale for the quality. Through this testing it was discovered that a temperature of approximately 150 degrees Celsius for 5 seconds is most desirable.

Plastic Fusion Results

Plastic Fusion Results

The table below shows temperature is the most significant factor, then temperature and time. At this time it does not make sense to do proof of concept outside of the design because temp and time can be accurately adjusted in the proper environment when the machine is built.

Fusion Test Variable Correlation

Fusion Test Variable Correlation

Life Span Testing

Using the real world data shown in the graph below, the life span of the amorphous polyester being used in the valves could be calculated. Through this the plastic itself will have an "infinite life" because the glue or weld will fail long before the material.

S-N Curve of A-PET

S-N Curve of A-PET

This allowed us to drop off our accelerated life testing, and instead focus on the weld testing. For this weights were hung from one layer while the others were held fixed. This was repeated several times with both the handmade valves and existing Italian valves. The results can be seen below.

Valve Peel Testing Results & Comparison

Valve Peel Testing Results & Comparison

As can be seen the peak of the fitted distribution for the hand made valves is a higher value, and the standard deviation is less. Therefore, from this sample group the hand made valves are stronger and more uniform. These tests will need to be repeated again once the fusion station is set up to ensure quality. Along with this a larger sample of Italian valves will need to be assessed.

Lessons Learned: During the plastics testing done, we learned that it is never too early to talk with experts. It wasn't until I talked with Dr. DeAngelis that I understood exactly what properties the plastic required. This is the same for our fusion method and temperature requirements.

Use your test plan to summarize test results and assess effectiveness of test plans to unambiguously demonstrate satisfaction of the engineering requirements

Risk/Problem Management

Below is our constructed Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for our project. The FMEA has been updated too show new risks that have come into existence as we move forward in the design process. Risks with higher importance have corrective actions in place to minimize the severity and possible remove the risk completely. The risks identified are tied to certain engineering and this is expressed in the last column of the FMEA. These risks could affect whether the project is completed on time or the overall quality of the reed valves.

Risk Table Pt.1

Risk Table Pt.1

Risk Table Pt.2

Risk Table Pt.2

Time vs. Risk Graph

Time vs. Risk Graph

Project Plan and Budget

Project Plan

Project Plan

Further breakdown of key deliverable are listed in the project document

Things to Note

Plans for next phase


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